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Department of the Army                                                                                         *TRADOC Pamphlet 350-70-2
Headquarters, United States Army
Training and Doctrine Command
Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-1047

26 June 2003

Training
Multimedia Courseware Development Guide


Summary. This pamphlet gives guidance on producing multimedia courseware. The decision to use multimedia courseware, and the type to produce, normally occurs during the design phase of the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) process.

Applicability. This pamphlet applies to Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (HQ TRADOC), and all subordinate organizations responsible for managing or performing training development (TD), or TD-related functions, including evaluation and quality assurance of the training, products, and institutions that present the training. It also applies to non-TRADOC agencies and organizations having Memorandums of Understanding (MOU), Memorandums of Agreement (MOA), and contracts.

Suggested improvements. Proponent for this pamphlet is the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training (DCSOPS&T). Send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) through channels to Commander, U.S. Army Training Support Center (ATSC), ATTN: ATIC-ITSS-I, Bldg 2791, Harrison Loop, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5166. Suggested improvements may also be submitted using DA Form 1045 (Army Ideas for Excellence Program (AIEP) Proposal). Use of FormFlow to send comments electronically is authorized.

Availability. This publication is available on the TRADOC Homepage at http://www.tradoc.army.mil

*This pamphlet supersedes TRADOC Pamphlet 350-70-2 dated 10 July 2001.


Contents

  Paragraph 9;
Chapter 1
Introduction
 
Purpose 1-1
References 1-2
Explanation of abbreviations and terms 1-3
Interrelationship of IMI to the Army Training System (TATS) and DL 1-4
Types of IMI 1-5
Types of storage mediums and systems for IMI 1-6
   
Chapter 2
Plan IMI Development Projects
 
Developing a plan 2-1
   
Section I. Project Requirements and Scope  
Identify project requirements 2-2
Review outputs from the SAT process 2-3
Locate and review existing training materials 2-4
Determine development actions and process 2-5
Determine validation requirements 2-6
Develop validation plan 2-7
   
Section II. Project Manager and Team  
Establish project manager and team leader duties 2-8
Establish IMI development team composition 2-9
Train the project team 2-10
   
 Section III. Development Time  
Determine development time 2-11
   
Section IV. Management and Organizational Support  
Determine management and organizational support 2-12
   
Section V. Quality Control and Milestone Planning  
Establish quality control procedures 2-13
Evaluate the quality of any IMI product 2-14
Develop IMI project milestones 2-15
   
Chapter 3
Prepare IMI Approval Documents
 
Submission of approval package 3-1
Review inventory (DAVIS/DITIS) 3-2
Conduct a DAVIS/DITIS search 3-3
Prepare DD Form 1995 (videotape only) 3-4
Prepare DD Form 2568 3-5
Prepare the Basis of Issue Plan (BOIP) 3-6
   
Chapter 4
Designing the Course
 
Interactive courseware 4-1
Interactive courseware design concept 4-2
General ICW design procedures 4-3
Interactive courseware design requirements 4-4
Presentation requirements 4-5
Learning activities 4-6
Methods of instruction 4-7
Identify adjunctive materials 4-8
Interactive courseware design components 4-9
Interactive courseware design considerations 4-10
Designing in interactivity 4-11
Designing in branching 4-12
Designing in controls 4-13
Providing feedback 4-14
Presentation of materials 4-15
Interactive courseware structuring and sequencing 4-16
Establish training content 4-17
Establish instructional treatment and practice requirements 4-18
Interactive courseware component use guidance 4-19
Design standards, conventions, and template requirements 4-20
   
Chapter 5
Design, Develop, and Validate IMI Tests
 
Test methods 5-1
Test development 5-2
Test selection 5-3
Test preparation 5-4
Test delivery 5-5
Interactive multimedia instruction test validation 5-6
Test grading 5-7
Test feedback and remediation 5-8
   
Chapter 6
Interactive Courseware Design Documents and Media Production
 
Overview 6-1
Design documentation 6-2
Instructional Media Design Package 6-3
Design document from Designer's Edge 6-4
Develop storyboards 6-5
Develop audio scripts 6-6
Develop video descriptions 6-7
Develop graphic and animation descriptions 6-8
Develop text 6-9
Develop programming and branching information 9; 9; 9; 9; 6-10
Produce media 6-11
Produce computer graphics and animations 6-12
Produce AV/video for IMI 6-13
Develop stand-alone videotapes (AV products) 9; 9; 9; 9; 6-14
Write a product treatment 6-15
Write a script 6-16
Write a storyboard 6-17
Prepare storyboard videotape and AV products 6-18
Develop the courseware prototype 6-19
   
Chapter 7
Author, Validate, and Complete IMI
 
Introduction 7-1
Author IMI 7-2
Add computer-managed instructions requirements 9; 9; 9; 9; 7-3
Prepare adjunctive materials 7-4
Debug, review, and test courseware 7-5
Validate the courseware 7-6
Develop a multimedia master material label package 7-7
Submit IMI master materials 7-8
Maintain the IMI 7-9
   
Appendixes  
A. References  
B. IMI Source Materials Software and Equipment Requirement  
C. Web-based and Hybrid Disc Delivery of IMI  
D. Instructional Media Design Documents  
E. Intellectual Property  
F. Technical Specifications for Television Videotapes and IMI Products  
G. Considerations for Producing a CD-ROM  
H. CD-ROM Labels and Television Videotape Jacket Insert Specifications  
I. Individual Trial Validation  
J. Validate Tests  
K. Checklists and Decision Aids  
   
Glossary  
   

Chapter 1
Introduction

1-1. Purpose.

    a. This pamphlet provides guidance for producing Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI). It describes how to plan, design, develop, and validate multimedia courseware approved as a part of a training course or program. TRADOC is currently undergoing a massive effort to standardize Army distributed learning (DL) architecture, equipment, facilities, and training products to ensure their interoperability with sister services and Federal agencies.

    `b. When developing IMI, it is essential to conform to all IMI Implementing Instructions. This will ensure digital exchange of training data across user platforms, and interoperability with the General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library (RDL), for usability of courseware by the Army. Ensure the courseware being developed integrates the DL program courseware design norms approved by Headquarters (HQ) TRADOC. See DCST memorandum ATTG-CG, subject: Norms for the Army Distance Learning Program (TADLP) Courseware Design.

    c. The Army Training Support Center (ATSC) will revise and update this pamphlet, as needed, so that it reflects current and up-to-date procedures in keeping with technological advances.

1-2. References. Required and related publications are in appendix A.

1-3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms. Terms and abbreviations used in this pamphlet are found in the glossary.

1-4. Interrelationship of IMI to the Army Training System (TATS) and DL.

    a. TRADOC's primary mission is to provide seamless training that enhances the combat capabilities of the Force-the Active Component and the Reserve Component, to include the Army National Guard. A basic tenet of this training integration effort is the leveraging of emerging technology to produce a single Army standard, the Army Training System (TATS). At the center of these emerging technologies stands an entire array of IMI initiatives-applying new training approaches, reducing training time, improving readiness, and offering a variety of delivery systems.

    b. Interactive Multimedia Instruction technology is loosely defined as computer-based technology, integrating a combination of, but not limited to, text, graphics, animation, sound, and video. The interactive courseware (ICW) component of IMI has been embraced in training environments, because it combines the interactivity and management features of computer-based training, with the benefits of realistic audio and video. Interactive Multimedia Instruction training applications are developed in many forms, including tutorials, simulations, virtual reality, expert systems, as well as "just-in-time" training embedded in performance support systems.

    c. The TATS course development procedures ensure standardization, by training all course critical tasks to task performance standard. However, different sites may conduct training; use different multimedia instructional/training technologies; involve various phases, modules, and/or lessons; and include a variety of delivery systems. Using the TATS course development requirements as the minimum standard will help meet and achieve this challenge.

    d. Distributed learning, in concert with TATS, is a holistic approach to training soldiers that will require a variety of individual and collective skills throughout their careers. A major aspect of TATS focuses on designing and revising courses to this single Army standard, using DL delivery systems-including, but not limited to, video teletraining (VTT), compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM), and the internet. In the event that digital versatile disk (DVD) overtakes CD-ROM technology, add procedures for changes from CD-ROM procedures via a job aid. On-line access to digitized TATS courses, and a variety of individual and collective training products, will provide training opportunities that are flexible, current, and focused on mission needs.

    e. This pamphlet provides the structured, coherent guidance and procedures for redesigning and developing IMI soldier and leader training, supporting the TATS courseware development standard, while applying DL concepts.

1-5. Types of IMI.

    a. As a general term, IMI refers to course materials that use multiple requirements for student responses as a primary means of facilitating instruction and learning. Interactive Multimedia Instruction is a stand-alone program, suitable for use as part of a normal course of instruction, or distribution to operational activities. Interactive Multimedia Instruction uses may also include a program that supports-

        (1) A presentation by an instructor.

        (2) Formal on-the-job-training.

        (3) Personnel performance.

        (4) Courseware management.

    b. Interactive Multimedia Instruction can link a combination of media to include, but not limited to, programmed instruction, videotapes, slides, film, text, graphics, digital audio, animation, and up to full motion video, to enhance the learning process. As commonly used, "ICW," "computer-based instruction (CBI)," "computer-based training (CBT)" are synonymous, interchangeable, and the predominant type of IMI covered by this policy.

    c. Per Military Handbook (MIL-HDBK) 29612-4A, DoD Instruction 1322.20, and TRADOC Regulation 350-70, Interactive Multimedia Instruction is a term applied to a group of predominantly interactive, electronically delivered training and training support products. Interactive Multimedia Instruction products include instructional software, and software management tools used in support of instructional programs. Interactive Multimedia Instruction products are teaching and management tools-use them in combination, or individually. Used individually, not all IMI products are considered interactive, multimedia, or instructional. However, IMI products, when used in combination with one another, are interactive, multimedia, and instructional.

    d. General purpose data processing hardware (e.g., servers and personal computers), software (e.g., operating systems, word processors, internet browsers), and data networking devices (e.g., switches, routers, and security devices), even when used in combination with IMI, are not themselves IMI. Such general-purpose information systems are subject to the requirements approval and acquisition procedures of TRADOC Pam 25-72.

    e. Interactive Multimedia Instruction components. Figure 1-1 shows the types of interactive multimedia courseware.

Figure 1-1. Types of interactive multimedia courseware

1-6. Types of storage mediums and systems for IMI. The large data files created for IMI projects require additional mediums for storing and transporting the IMI data. As a training designer/developer, it is important to determine what storage mediums the target audience has prior to initiation of media development. The various types of storage are:

    a. Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. A CD-ROM drive is used to store IMI project data. Based on the file size of the project, determine which type of disc to use. A CD-ROM stores about 650 megabytes (MB) of data.

    b. Interactive Video Disc (IVD). Interactive Video Disc is an information storage medium used with computers to support programs requiring a very large quantity of visuals (e.g., long, full-motion video sequences, or a very large library of complex graphics). Interactive Video Disc uses text, graphics, full motion analog video, and audio. It is always delivered on a videodisc-based system. Although there are products currently in this storage media, no future development is planned for IVD delivery.

    c. Digitized Training Access Center (DTAC). The DTAC is a central repository of digital training materials. It provides training services and file storage to an installation, its tenant activities, and schools. A DTAC capability will link the training development suite, the DL Classrooms and the RDL. It will contain the appropriate hardware and software to store and distribute training materials, manage and control student activities, administer the local area network (LAN), provide dial-in and other remote access capabilities, and interface with other training management systems. The configuration, locations, and required number of DTACs, or equivalent capability, are currently under development, based on the best technical approach.

    d. General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library. The RDL is the official repository of approved Army doctrine, as described in TRADOC Reg 350-70, the information foundation, and single, common component of the Warfighter XXI, Warrior XXI, and Warnet XXI campaign plans of the Force XXI training strategy. The RDL will provide a worldwide audience transparent access to a distributed, digital repository of accurate and timely training knowledge sets, and interactive applications, to support training of individuals and units.

Chapter 2
Plan IMI Development Projects

2-1. Developing a plan.

    a. Detailed planning is critical to a successful IMI development project. Most IMI development projects involve:

        (1) Expensive development costs.

        (2) Considerable time to develop.

        (3) Specialized hardware and software packages.

        (4) Cost analysis, if course materials change frequently.

        (5) Selection of the correct type of IMI delivery system-CD-ROM or World Wide Web (WWW). See appendix G for information on producing a CD-ROM.

    b. It is necessary to develop a project management plan, to identify how the IMI development project will progress, from the start of the IMI effort, until the IMI is fielded. Project plans generally focus on managing time, money, people, and materiel. When developing the plan, consider:

        (1) Technical requirements of the project.

        (2) Resources available to accomplish the project.

        (3) Abilities of personnel available to work on the project.

    c. Prepare the project plan based on information obtained, and decisions made, in Sections I-V of this chapter.

        (1) Current long- and short-range training development project plans.

        (2) Level of uncertainty for planning.

        (3) Management and organizational support.

        (4) Capabilities of the IMI team members.

    d. Include the following areas in the plan:

        (1) Project requirements.

        (2) Resource requirements.

        (3) Software and hardware requirements.

        (4) Facility requirements.

        (5) Training requirements for team and contractor personnel.

        (6) Temporary duty requirements.

        (7) Contract requirements.

        (8) Duties and responsibilities of team members.

        (9) Support from other organizations.

        (10) Development process.

        (11) Project milestones.

        (12) Project deliverables.

        (13) Quality Control Process.

        (14) Validation plan.

        (15) Implementation plan.

    e. Follow the steps below to develop a plan for the IMI development project. (See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter II-2-6 for additional information.)

        (1) Identify the project requirements (see para 2-2).

        (2) Review outputs from the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) process (see para 2-3).

        (3) Locate and review existing training materials (see para 2-4).

        (4) Determine development actions and process (see para 2-5).

        (5) Determine validation requirements (see para 2-6).

        (6) Develop validation plan (see para 2-7).

        (7) Establish project manager and team leader duties (see para 2-8).

        (8) Establish IMI development team composition (see para 2-9).

        (9) Train the project team (see para 2-10).

        (10) Determining development time (see para 2-11).

        (11) Determine management and organizational support (see para 2-12).

        (12) Establish quality control (QC) procedures (see para 2-13).

        (13) Evaluate the quality of any IMI product (see para 2-14).

        (14) Develop IMI project milestones (see para 2-15).

Section I
Project Requirements and Scope

2-2. Identify project requirements.

    a. Identify the requirements of an IMI development project to determine the nature and scope of the IMI development effort. Use the needs analysis and Combined Army Training Strategy (CATS) to obtain this information. Identify IMI development project requirements by answering these questions-

        (1) Who are the IMI users?

        (2) Where are the users located?

        (3) What are the IMI users' requirements?

        (4) How is the task currently trained?

        (5) What are the required design and development actions?

        (6) What are the technical requirements?

        (7) What are the development resource requirements and limitations?

        (8) What are the outputs of the SAT analysis process?

        (9) When is the training required?

    b. Purpose of project. Identifying project requirements begins with determining the purpose of the IMI project, if it does not already exist. A good purpose statement is both task and results-oriented.

    c. Confirm IMI type. Determine the project requirements to confirm that IMI is the appropriate training solution to the performance deficiency. Do not select IMI simply for its technological appeal. Interactive Multimedia Instruction is not the best, or most cost-effective, method for every learning objective. Deciding when to use IMI requires a step-by-step examination process. Consider the use of Advisor and software programs to assist in making this determination.

    d. Interactive Multimedia Instruction is developed and/or managed at a centralized location, but delivered at more than one local, or remote, user location. When planning to export IMI to remote locations, determine if it is possible to do so by answering the following questions:

        (1) Does the training site have existing hardware that can support IMI training?

        (2) Is the number of hardware stations sufficient to train the number of IMI students?

        (3) Is the existing hardware available for IMI training?

        (4) Are funds available for hardware and software procurement?

        (5) Are funds available for operating IMI?

        (6) Does the target audience demographics justify IMI use?

    e. The following links provide current information on hardware availability for the target audience: Classroom XXI; Phase I-III TADLP System/Subsystem Specifications; and National Guard Hardware Support.

2-3. Review outputs from the SAT process.

    a. Interactive Multimedia Instruction development relies on outputs from preceding SAT actions. Use the outputs from individual task analysis and training design actions as the basis for planning, developing, and updating the IMI project. These outputs influence the presentation of training using IMI.

    b. Follow the steps below to review SAT outputs.

        (1) Review the target audience description to determine-

            (a) Baseline skills and knowledge.

            (b) Reading grade level.

            (c) Previous training received.

            (d) Math skill level.

            (e) Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery scores required for the job.

        (2) Review task performance specifications for-

            (a) Critical and individual task statement.

            (b) Task conditions.

            (c) Prerequisites.

            (d) Task standard.

            (e) Task performance steps.

            (f) Performance measures.

            (g) Individual task number system.

            (h) Individual task analysis report.

            (i) Task-to-skill/knowledge matrix.

            (j) Hazard potential.

        (3) Review existing design documentation (lesson plan) for-

            (a) Training purpose and scope.

            (b) Terminal learning objectives (TLOs).

            (c) Enabling learning objectives (ELOs).

            (d) Learning steps/activities.

            (e) Equipment used for training only.

            (f) Training site.

            (g) Delivery means-media selected for each learning step/activity.

            (h) Resource requirements.

            (i) Methods.

            (j) Media.

            (k) Environmental considerations.

        (4) Review existing training and testing materials, in accordance with (IAW) paragraph  2-4.

        (5) Review and revise, if necessary, both the long-range and short-range training strategies based on feasibility of-

            (a) Established milestones.

            (b) Training constraints.

            (c) Resource requirements.

            (d) Resource constraints.

2-4. Locate and review existing training materials.

    a. Before developing new materials, review all existing materials to determine if their use-

as is, modified, or incorporated-can satisfy the design specification.

    b. Locate existing materials. Search appropriate databases and catalogs:

        (1) Department of Defense (DoD) databases-

            (a) Defense Instructional Technology Information System (DITIS) for IMI.

            (b) Defense Automated Visual Information System (DAVIS) for visual information (VI). See chapter 3 for search instructions

        (2) In-house databases-

            (a) Automated Systems Approach to Training (ASAT) for course specific training development information.

            (b) TRADOC supported electronic preauthoring tool, (e.g., Designer's Edge) for course specific training development information.

            (c) Reimer Digital Library for Army doctrine and training materials.

        (3) The Army Publishing Directorate's (APD) Electronic Publication Database, to order or download reference materials for IMI projects.

        (4) Survey commercial catalogs and trade publications.

    c. Follow the steps below to review existing materials.

        (1) Collect existing products from like military occupational specialty (MOS) training material or commercial equivalent. Search by tasks for materials.

        (2) Review the existing material for common target audience characteristics, learning objectives, current doctrine, media delivery, and quality of graphics or videotape.

        (3) Determine the suitability of the material for use in the IMI project.

            (a) Accept material consistent with the factors in subparagraph (2) above.

            (b) If materials are expanded or condensed, and substituted for the planned IMI, revise appropriately.

            (c) Reject materials too costly to revise for the planned IMI.

        (4) Review course designs and lesson outlines.

2-5. Determine development actions and process.

    a. Once the requirements for the IMI project have been determined, think through the development process, and prepare a list of steps in each phase, appropriate to the particular project. Steps are provided below, and a flow chart of the IMI process is at figure 2-1, to assist in this task. All of the steps shown below are needed for every project.

        (1) Analysis and planning.

            (a) Analyze and define the project.

            (b) Identify project requirement.

            (c) Identify resource requirements and availability.

            (d) Determine management and organizational support needed.

            (e) Determine team training requirements.

            (f) Determine project feasibility.

            (g) Develop a project management plan.

            (h) Obtain approval for the plan.

            (i) Coordinate the plan.

            (j) Implement the plan.

            (k) Monitor the project.

        (2) Development. Develop the following materials:

            (a) Course map.

            (b) Flowchart.

            (c) Storyboards.

            (d) Graphics (create or repurpose).

            (e) Audiovisual (AV) materials (produce or repurpose).

            (f) Audio files.

            (g) Adjunctive references and resources.

            (h) Assemble the courseware.

        (3) Evaluation. Conduct the following evaluations:

            (a) Internal evaluation.

            (b) Content validation.

            (c) Individual trials.

            (d) Verification of courseware (program links and courseware management system (data collection and reporting))

            (e) Validation is to include-

    • Test.
    • Small groups/operational trials.
    • Courseware.
    • Courseware management system.
    • Program links.

            (f) External evaluation or Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA).

        (4) Implementation. Determine that the following are in compliance with the Distributed Learning Strategy.

            (a) Delivery methods (CD-ROM/Internet/Intranet/WWW).

            (b) Course management system requirements:

    • Registration.
    • Access to course materials.
    • Grading.
    • Recordkeeping.
    • Distribution or download of materials.
    • Student submission of course assignments.
    • Report requirements.

            (c) Official record keeping requirements:

    • Documentation of completion.
    • Transfer of data to other career management systems, both civilian and military.

        (5) Life cycle management. Determine the following:

            (a) Historical package requirements and storage.

            (b) Review procedures.

            (c) Revisions procedures.

            (d) Replication.

            (e) Distribution.

            (f) Troubleshooting process for problems.

Figure 2-1. IMI development process

    b. Once the steps are selected, briefly write out the following information. An example is provided in table 2-1.

        (1) Purpose of the step.

        (2) Products resulting from the step.

        (3) Documentation used in developing products.

        (4) Personnel responsible for the step.

        (5) Review and approval process for the step.

Table 2-1
Process table example

Phases/
Step

Purpose

Product

Documentation

Responsible
Personnel*

Review
Approval

Planning

  • Determine team training requirement

Determine

  • Resources
  • Time required

Trained
staff

  • Completed Checklist 1 & 2
  • DA Form 1556
  • Contract for training, if required

Project Manager*

Management*

  • Develop-ment plan

Organize and coordinate resources and activities

Project
plan

Decisions from Sections I-V

Project Manager*

Management*

*In the Responsible Personnel column, identify the actual person's name, instead of title.

2-6. Determine validation requirements.

    a. Validate the IMI, using a sample of the target audience on the computer equipment for which it was developed. Identifying a requirement to conduct the validation is critical for an efficient validation planning process.

    b. Follow the steps below to determine validation requirements.

        (1) Determine the target audience sample by identifying soldiers with the required prerequisites, and identifying performers and nonperformers of the objectives being validated.

        (2) Identify equipment and facility requirements to conduct the validation.

        (3) Identify the validation site by confirming it has the necessary facilities and equipment, and confirming the site contains the appropriate target audience population. The appropriate sample size is obtained from the target audience population.

        (4) Identify validation method, including the data collection and analysis procedures, by evaluating all TLOs and ELOs, as well as their supporting adjunctive materials, and identifying data collection and analysis procedures used.

        (5) Ensure equivalent pretest/posttests are identical, and developed based on analysis data.

        (6) Determine what response forms and questionnaires are required to prepare trainee profile sheets to collect data on the sample, prepare questionnaires to obtain feedback on the materials, and determine charts for plotting results.

        (7) Identify instructor and key personnel (KP) for the validation team. Identify validation team roles and their responsibilities, and KP that must assist in administering the validation. Train KP on the use of the IMI and validation procedures.

2-7. Develop validation plan.

    a. Purpose. A validation plan provides IMI developers with a roadmap for validating the IMI. The plan provides organization to the process, and adds credibility, by providing a documented process for the validation.

    b. Content. The plan should address all the validation requirements and the specific information for the following:

        (1) Description of the instruction validated (e.g., learning objectives, method, and media)

        (2) Who conducts the validation.

        (3) Validation location.

        (4) Facilities and equipment required.

        (5) Number and availability of students in the target population.

        (6) Roles and responsibilities of validation team members.

        (7) Instruction to the students.

        (8) Validation procedures.

        (9) Validation schedules.

        (10) Description of how the results are documented.

        (11) Contingency plans.

        (12) Validation report requirements.

    c. Coordination. Coordinate the validation plan with affected offices, schools, units, and commands.

    d. Approval. Get formal approval of the validation plan.

    e. Implementation. Those validating the IMI must follow the predetermined guidelines and standards for evaluating the effectiveness of IMI under validation. Each component of the IMI is measured against a predetermined standard.

Section II
Project Manager and Team

2-8. Establish project manager and team leader duties.

    a. A team composed of many disciplines and specialties are required to develop IMI. However, to produce effective IMI products, the entire team-in-house or contractor-must collectively gain new skills and knowledge. The team requires direction, coordination, training, and supervision to gain this multidisciplinary expertise. Depending upon the scope and size of the specific IMI project, and organization management, combine some of the responsibilities.

    b. Project manager. The project manager is normally designated before actual development begins, and is the person responsible for overall control of the IMI development. Actual duties and responsibilities vary, depending upon project complexity, and IMI proponent school's operating procedures.

    c. Project manager duties. A project manager is responsible for some or all of the following:

        (1) Developing a project management plan.

        (2) Identifying hardware and software used with the IMI.

        (3) Developing the project's budget submission.

        (4) Developing milestones.

        (5) Determining required team skills.

        (6) Selecting and assigning team members.

        (7) Training team personnel.

        (8) Monitoring progress of the project.

    d. Team leaders. The project manager may appoint team leaders to supervise specific portions, or disciplines, of the IMI project. Generally, if three or more team members possess the same specialty, a team leader is appointed to oversee their activities.

        (1) Do not assign team leaders full time to development functions.

        (2) Information should come from management, to the team leader, and then disseminated to the team.

        (3) All problems should go from the team members to the team leaders.

    e. Team leader duties. Team leaders are responsible for some or all of the following:

        (1) Planning milestones schedule, and readjusting the schedule when the situation changes.

        (2) Assigning work to team members.

        (3) Performing QC for the team.

        (4) Developing adjunctive materials, such as student and manager instructions, and labeling.

        (5) Knowing, and reporting, the status of the project.

        (6) Serving as the central point of contact (POC) for the subject matter expert (SME).

        (7) Training team members.

        (8) Giving demonstrations, as required.

    f. Project manager and team leader authority. The project manager and team leaders have rating official, leave approval, and training approval authority for each member of the team.

2-9. Establish IMI development team composition.

    a. Identify the quantity and qualifications of training developers, VI specialists, AV program officers, and SMEs for the IMI development project. Obtain these personnel resources, when needed, for the specific IMI product. If an office is tasked to provide personnel support to the project, the team is-

        (1) Contacted and informed of their requirement, as early as possible.

        (2) Consulted on milestone establishment, and notified of any changes.

        (3) Required to notify you, if unable to meet established milestones.

        (4) Made part of the IMI development team.

    b. Development team capabilities. Interactive multimedia instruction project requirements determine the team's collective skills and knowledge. Checklist 1 (app K) lists general team capabilities. Any question answered NO, which is a requirement for the project, needs to have training arranged for the team member, or request support from other organizations. The multidiscipline nature of IMI development may require part-time use of a programmer, illustrator, and media specialist. Use Checklist 2 (app K) to determine specialized skill requirements for the team.

    c. Team roles. Team members may perform some, or all, of the roles and activities shown in table 2-2, depending on the type of IMI developed, and the qualifications of the personnel. Include the same individuals that conducted the analysis and design as part of the team, if they possess the required skills.

    d. Define team roles and activities. The make-up of the development team depends on the characteristics of the proposed IMI, and the authoring software selected for the project. Team member may perform some, or all, of the activities shown in table 2-2, on a full, or part-time basis. As part of the project plan, describe the roles and activities of each IMI team member. Define their individual assignments, and how they will work together as a team, to produce interim products, and final lessons.

Table 2-2
Team roles and activities

Team Role

Activities

Instructional Designer

  • Develop instructional strategies.
  • Create project's overall design.
  • Describe appropriate methods.
  • Select applicable media.
  • Determine graphic and AV requirements.
  • Develop interactive flowcharts.
  • Identify required skills and knowledge to supplement or accompany IMI.
  • Develop a prototype with other team members.
  • Establish conventions.
  • Author courseware, as required.
  • Prepare validation plan.
  • Manage validations.
  • Analyze data and write validation report.
  • Review completed lesson designs, flowcharts, and storyboards.

An Instructional Systems Specialist (1750) normally performs these duties.

Courseware Developer

  • Select appropriate computer and IMI capabilities.
  • Assist in the development of the prototypes.
  • Develop storyboards.
  • Author lessons, according to conventions established.
  • Review any scripts, shot list, and footage.

An Instructional Systems Specialist (1750), a Training Specialist (1712), or military personnel normally perform these duties.

Evaluator

Provides input to the validation plan and conducts validations.

An Instructional Systems Specialist (1750), a Training Specialist (1712), or a Personnel Psychologist (180) normally performs these duties.

SME

  • Provide training for team members.
  • Provide technical information.
  • Provide access to equipment and facilities.
  • Describe performance setting.
  • Review and approve IMI products for technical content.
  • Review premaster materials for courseware.
  • Coordinate and assist the validation.
  • Review and comment on lesson designs, flowcharts, and storyboards.

Military personnel or a Training Specialist (1712) normally perform these duties.

Information Technology (IT) Specialist

  • Available on a part-time basis.
  • Identify software problems, and coordinate with appropriate company to provide a solution.
  • Develop computer programming when the authoring software does not meet training strategy need or special feature requirements.
  • Advise on programming guidelines.
  • Develop templates.
  • Select authoring tool.

A Computer Scientist (1550) or a Computer Assistant (335) normally perform these duties.

Automation Support

  • Available on a part-time basis.
  • Identify hardware, network, and bulletin board specifications to support courseware development and delivery.
  • Set up hardware and configure system(s) to meet the needs of the authoring and graphics software.
  • Identify source of hardware problems, and provide a solution.

A Systems Program Analyst (345) or a Computer Clerk/Assistant (335) normally perform these duties.

Administrative Support

Administrative support staff consists of-

  • Clerical personnel.
  • Writer-editors.
  • Training technicians, and computer assistant or clerks, available on a part-time basis, to input information into a preauthoring, authoring, or automation system.
  • Performs editorial and quality control functions.

Audiovisual Production Specialist

  • Available on a part-time basis.
  • Review IMI requirement for production requirements.
  • Advise on visual options.
  • Locate existing AV resources required.
  • Coordinate motion and still photographic support.
  • Coordinate AV production support.
  • Ensure production media quality.

Visual Production Specialist (1071) normally performs these duties.

Graphic Imaging Personnel

  • Assist in the development of conventions.
  • Develop graphic images to include screen layout, screen design, text attributes and color, illustrations, technical drawings, title, and animation frames.
  • Develop graphics, based on reference materials, and descriptions provided by developers.
  • Catalog computer graphic images, and maintain a reference file.
  • Available for graphic consultation.

An Illustrator (1020), a Visual Information Specialist (1084), or a Photography Specialist (1060) normally performs these duties.

Contractor or Contracting Officer's Representative (COR)

If a contract is required for the total or partial development effort, the contractor's role is outlined in the contract or delivery order. The COR role is outlined in the letter of appointment from the Contracting Officer for that particular procurement.

    e. Use of SMEs. The developer has to find ways to gain knowledge in the subject matter requiring training. An approved task analysis is a source of training data. One of the best ways to do this is to use SMEs. These SMEs may need help in imparting their knowledge to the developer. The developer can use the following tips to encourage, and enable, the SME to impart this knowledge.

        (1) Gathering information.

            (a) Gain confidence of the SME.

            (b) Focus the SME on the task.

            (c) Develop skill of asking the right questions to understand the concept or procedure.

            (d) Rephrase SME's words to make sure they are understood.

            (e) Stop the SME when "jargon" is used, and ask them to talk in "lay language."

            (f) Focus SME on most common scenarios.

            (g) Elicit examples of procedures and situations that are simple, common, realistic, and representative.

            (h) Ask SME for additional suggestions, or ideas on questions that will cause the learner to apply what was just learned.

        (2) Establishing a working relationship.

            (a) Identify when the SME will receive the first draft.

            (b) Determine what the SME is to read for.

            (c) Resolve whether other SME will read first draft.

            (d) Establish how comments are communicated to the developer.

            (e) Establish how disagreements are resolved.

            (f) Determine the review turnaround time.

            (g) Determine if the SME will review revised drafts and changes.

            (h) Resolve who will review the lessons, once they are on-line.

            (i) Resolve who has the final "say" on the content.

            (j) Determine if a formal sign-off will take place.

    f. Selecting and working with SMEs. A SME is an individual who has a thorough knowledge of a job (duties and tasks). This knowledge qualifies the individual to assist in the training development process (i.e., consultation, review, analysis, etc). If the SME is an instructor, that individual will be working in their field of expertise.

2-10. Train the project team. After determining the team composition, and defining their roles and interaction (project plan), prepare the project team to do the job by-

    a. Determining team training requirements. The key to determining team members' training requirements is to examine their experience. Determine the background of the team. If members do not have IMI experience, they are likely to need some training. If they do have IMI experience, they still may need formal training, if they lack experience with the software packages chosen.

    b. Providing training. Once training needs have been determined-

        (1) First, consider using in-house experts to conduct training for the staff.

        (2) Next, look for available Government training, such as the IMI Development Workshop, and Designer's Edge training.

        (3) Consider commercial sources for training on software products.

        (4) If six or more team members need training on the same program, consider contracting for commercial on-site training.

        (5) Consider use of the installation Staff and Faculty Directorate.

    c. Providing documentation. The development team members need copies of documents explaining how they are to do their job. They should also receive documents that are required to develop IMI, such as-

        (1) Development process outline.

        (2) Quality control procedures.

        (3) IMI design specifications and conventions.

        (4) Sample screen formats.

        (5) Programming templates.

        (6) IMI hardware and software user's manual.

    d. Establish a library, or provide Internet access to resources, regulations, and guidance, such as this pamphlet, TRADOC Reg 350-70, and Military Handbook 29612, Parts 1-4.

Section III
Development Time

2-11. Determine development time.

    a. This section provides a baseline estimate to begin the process of determining the total number of hours required to design, develop, and evaluate one hour of IMI. Table 2-3 shows a baseline estimate for IMI projects, broken down into levels. The table describes the presentation levels of interactivity. Program management time is included in the estimates.

    b. Time estimates for planning purposes. Table 2-3 lists estimated hours of development for one hour of IMI. TRADOC schools may use these optional time values, only for planning purposes, to help plan, or contract, for development of IMI. Do not use the estimated times for staffing purposes; they are for estimating purposes only.

Table 2-3
Estimating IMI development hours

Level of Interactivity

Estimated Time

1 - Basic

50-150

2 - Medium

150-300

3 - High

300-600

4 - Realtime

400-700

    c. The Levels of Interactivity from MIL-HDBK-29612-3A are described below.

        (1) Level 1 - Low simulation presentation.

            (a) Current Level 1. This is the lowest (baseline) level of ICW development. It is normally a knowledge, or familiarization, lesson, provided in a linear format (one idea after another). Level 1 is primarily used for introducing an idea or concept. The user has little or no control over the sequence and timed events of the lesson material. Minimal interactivity is provided by selective screen icons, and inserted into the lesson through typical input/output peripherals, and programming protocols. This may include simple developed graphics clip art, video, and audio segments (clips). Make use of typical input/output peripherals throughout the lesson.

            (b) Elaboration about Level 1. Level 1 is the lowest and baseline level of ICW development. Use Level 1 to introduce an idea or concept, or to familiarize. Provide minimal interactivity, by using selectable screen icons inserted into the linear, or almost linear, flow of the ICW. Allow the student little or no control of the sequence of instructional media presented, including simple, developed graphics, clip art, customer provided video, and audio segments (clips). Make use of typical input/output peripherals throughout the lesson.

  • Instructional Flow: The instructional flow is essentially one-way, flowing from the ICW to the student. When the student makes an input-when prompted-the input is minor: "what is your name, date, unit?", "type the following .", "select the correct .."
  • Training Taxonomy: Cognitive domain, using the basic knowledge category (memorization). At this level, do not expect students to comprehend the information; but to memorize, and restate it. This level can vary from isolated bits of knowledge, to more abstract knowledge of theories, or organizing structures.
  • Cues for Lesson Objectives: Know, select, recite, observe, recall, define, list, identify, show, label, collect, name, and describe.

At its most rudimentary use, Level 1 is commonly called 'a page turner.'

        (2) Level 2 - Medium simulation presentation.

            (a) Current Level 2. Level 2 involves the recall of more information than Level 1, and allows the student more control over the lesson's scenario, through screen icons and other peripherals, such as light pens, or touch screens. Typically, Level 2 is used for noncomplex operations and maintenance lessons. Simple emulations or simulations are presented to the user. As an example, the user is requested to rotate switches, turn dials, make adjustments, or identify and replace a faulted component as part of a procedure. This also may include simple to standard developed graphics, and/or clip art, and video and audio clips.

            (b) Elaboration about Level 2. Level 2 requires the recall of more information than Level 1, and allows the student more control of the lesson, by interacting with screen icons and other screen objects. Use multiple-input objects on the screen to increase the interactivity of the lesson; multiple-input objects cause the building of branching structures. Make the student response use lesson objective cues that cause interaction with the screen information. Use remediation extensively, to reinforce the learning objectives. Remediation causes repeating of a particular section of the lesson (a 'no go' situation), by use of a branching action called a 'loop.' The loop can, in order of its complexity, provide feedback about that particular section, repeat/replay that particular section, or provide entirely new instruction about that particular 'no go' section. Use simple branching for other instruction, which permits the student to veer from the main instructional path, to seek additional information about a subject. However, the student ultimately returns to the departure point. Instruction remains essentially linear, even though remediation loops, simple branching, and menus are used. Except for slight (i.e. remediation) digressions, the student moves through the instruction using a preplanned path. The ICW remains linear, but uses simple branching. Make use of typical input/output peripherals throughout the lesson.

    • Instructional Flow: The instructional flow is essentially two-way-ICW prompting that causes the student to respond to lesson objective cues. The student response is tracked for ICW branching decisions, and possibly for 'pass/fail' situations.
    • Training Taxonomy: Cognitive domain, using exercise solving (an advanced knowledge category). Students memorize a procedure or series of steps, to solve exercises that are similar to those presented in class. Incidentally, exercise solving is a higher form of rote learning; the student may not understand why, or even what is done, but knows that by following these steps, the correct answer is obtained.
    • Cues for Lesson Objectives: Recall, recognize, interpret, group, show, generalize, associate, distinguish, locate, and demonstrate.

At its most rudimentary use, Level 2 presents a choice or question, and after student interaction, immediately provides 'the correct solution,' or additional information.

        (3) Level 3 - High simulation presentation.

            (a) Current Level 3. Level 3 involves the recall of more complex information (compared to Levels 1 and 2), and allows the user an increased level of control over the lesson scenario, through peripherals such as light pen, touch screen, track ball, or mouse. Video, graphics, or a combination of both, is presented, simulating the operation of a system, subsystem, or equipment to the user. The lesson scenario training material typically is complex, and involves more frequent use of peripherals, to affect a transfer of learning. Operation and maintenance procedures are normally practiced with Level 3 scenarios, requiring students to alternate between multiple screens to keep pace with the lesson material. Multiple software branches (two to three levels), and rapid response are provided to support remediation. Emulations and simulations are an integral part of this presentation, and may also include complex developed graphics, and/or clip art, and video and audio clips.

            (b) Elaboration about Level 3. Level 3 involves applying information, even complex information, to solving a problem or producing a result. Prompting is much reduced; less prompting allows the student a perceived increased level of control over the lesson. Use video, audio, and graphics to simulate the operation or maintenance of equipment, a system, or subsystem for the student. The ICW for Level 3 is typically complex, and can use peripherals such as a large screen TV or multiple monitors; the ICW can also include ancillary training materials. Use emulation and simulation as an integral part of equipment operation and maintenance. Include at this ICW level, complex graphics and clip art, video clips, and audio clips. Provide the student decision points from which multiple branching will occur; multiple branching provides more reality to this level. Branching follows a student decision or input. Create a multiple branch by allowing a student to enter into a decision point. Each decision has a corresponding branch, and each of the branches will, in turn, lead to other decision points, with corresponding branches. A branch can lead to another branch that leads to another branch. Typically, use no more than three or four branches in a multiple branching sequence. Remediation, if any, occurs at the end of an instructional block, or at an important learning point (i.e., 'go/no go' condition). Feedback is typically used at the end of an instructional block, to apprise the student of their progress. The ICW is only vaguely linear-the student moving from a start point to an end point; but because of the multiple branching feature, the student is able to progress through the ICW using any of multiple paths. Make use of typical input/output peripherals throughout the lesson, to simulate the operation or movement of physical items.

    • Instructional Flow: The instructional flow is essentially one-way-but in the opposite direction of Level 1 flow! The ICW does little prompting; instead the ICW presents information that the student must study, interpret, and use to provide correct responses, which correspond to lesson objective cues. Student responses are tracked for ICW branching decisions and scoring.
    • Training Taxonomy: Cognitive domain, using problem solving. Students use facts, rules, and principles toward solving a problem. Students perform unprompted use of an abstraction (simulation via ICW), and apply what was learned from the ICW into novel situations in the workplace.
    • Cues for Lesson Objectives: Apply, demonstrate, practice, use, construct, complete, solve, modify, change, discover, operate, produce, prepare, choose, investigate, employ, and schedule.

        (4) Level 4 - Real-time simulation presentation.

            (a) Current Level 4. This ICW level involves more in-depth recall of a larger amount of information (compared to lower levels), and allows the user an increased level of control over the lesson. Every possible subtask is analyzed and presented with full, on-screen interaction, similar to the approach used in aircraft simulator technology. The lesson material is extremely complex, and involves more frequent use of peripherals, to affect the transfer of learning. This level normally supports certification, recertification, or qualification requirements. Complicated operation and maintenance procedures are normally practiced with Level 4, and involve all of the elements of Levels 1, 2, and 3, plus a high degree of interactivity, extensive branching (four or more levels), and levels of sophistication-short of artificial intelligence.

            (b) Elaboration about Level 4. Full simulation. Students prove they can perform specific tasks, errors are compounded, training prompts do not occur, and feedback occurs after the student passes or fails. No remediation during the lesson, only at the end.

    • Instructional Flow: The instructional flow is essentially one-way-in the same direction as Level 3. The ICW does no prompting; instead, the ICW presents pseudo simulation information that the student must interpret and analyze, to demonstrate conclusions that correspond to lesson objective cues. Student responses are tracked for ICW branching decisions and scoring.
    • Training Taxonomy: Cognitive domain, using analysis. Students are able to analyze the underlying structure of a system, subsystem, or component-troubleshooting a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Students recognize logical fallacies in reasoning.
    • Cues for Lesson Objectives: Analyze, break down, compare, contrast, diagram, deconstruct, deduce, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, identify, infer, relate, separate, and uncover.

    d. Assumptions for estimating development hours. There are factors and variables that can effect the development time required per one hour of completed IMI. The following list of factors define a "best case" situation:

        (1) The IMI developer is familiar with the subject matter, and has access to in-house SMEs.

        (2) The subject matter may, or may not, be highly complex.

        (3) The instructional content is stable; that is, the system for which the training is being developed exists, and is not emerging. Tasks selected for IMI training do not continually change.

        (4) The instructional content is well documented. A training needs assessment and task analysis are complete, giving the designer a good idea of the performance expected, and tasks trained. The technical materials supporting the lesson development are accurate and available.

        (5) The IMI developer is familiar with the selected IMI authoring software.

        (6) The IMI developer is familiar with the target audience.

        (7) There is no requirement to document to a military standard such as MIL-STD-2167A (cancelled in 1995). Best commercial practices are accepted for software development and video production.

        (8) The IMI project team consists of individuals experienced with IMI management, design, and development.

        (9) The selected IMI authoring system is mature and stable. No beta versions are used.

        (10) A lesson format, to include the design strategy, is agreed upon "up front," and the management has "bought into" it. If possible, the management has approved a prototype lesson. Also, the development process is standardized.

        (11) The COR and SME work closely with the design team on a regular basis. The COR uses objective acceptance criteria, and does not continually change the individual responsible for reviewing and approving the lessons.

        (12) All required resources are in place.

    e. Effect of changes in variables. Many factors might affect the IMI development effort. There are degrees of risk associated with some variables, which might impact the cost and timeliness of the product. The list, provided at table 2-4, is not all-inclusive. Individual program software may have different or additional variables.

Table 2-4
Variables affecting time estimates for IMI development

VARIABLES

Increase Number of Hours By:

RISK

(Scale 1-5)
None-High
1 2 3 4 5

No "in-house" SMEs; must rely solely on use of proponent SMEs.

25

2

Subject matter is highly complex.

100

4

Instructional content is unstable. System for which IMI is being developed is emerging. Tasks for IMI constantly changing.

100

5

Inadequate documentation. No training needs assessment performed. No task analysis or learning analysis data. Technical manuals nonexistent, or not helpful.

20

4

Total IMI course length <100 hours. (Less potential for use of templates, shell, etc.)

20

1

Developer not familiar with IMI software/authoring package.

15

2

Developer not familiar with target audience.

10

2

Best commercial practices not acceptable for video, graphics production, and software development. Must develop to a specification and deliver large amount of documentation.

50

2

Inexperienced project team:

  • IMI designers inexperienced
  • IMI manager inexperienced
  • IMI programmer inexperienced

80
100
60

3

4

Using a beta version of the authoring package.

80

4

No prototype exists, or agreement "up front" on design strategy. No standardized development process followed.

50

5

Management not using objective and consistent acceptance criteria. Management unsure of what is needed, and does not communicate with developer.

50

5

Required resources not in place at start of project.

20

1

    f. Estimating impact of course changes. Examples of the typical kinds of changes often encountered during IMI development are given in table 2-5. The table shows the degree of effort commonly associated with minor, moderate, and major changes. Degrees of effort are used to help the IMI manager determine if the change will require additional funds to implement. Table 2-5 is based on a single instance; multiple instances of the same occurrence will impact the degree of effort involved.

    g. Examples of using tables 2-4 and 2-5. Assume that Level 2 ICW was estimated to train a skill. The product for development is IMI, and the course length is estimated at 150 hours. The software is familiar, and the course includes experienced people. Programming and video production is completed "in house." There are no specification requirements; however, no training needs assessment has been performed, and the subject matter is highly complex (add 100 hours). There are no in-house SMEs (add 25 hours). The instructional content is stable, but the documentation is poor (add 20 hours). The target audience is not familiar (add 10 hours). Beginning with the number 150 (the hours it would take to develop one hour given the "best case" situation), add a total of 155 hours to the estimate, bringing the total up to 305 hours to develop one hour of instruction.

Table 2-5
Configuration Control Decision Matrix

Type of Change

Degree of Effort

Minor

Moderate

Major

Technical

Example: switch position is wrong.

Example: change functioning of an entire component due to an equipment modification.

Example: introduce entire set of new tasks.

Instructional

Example: allow student two tries, instead of one.

Example: change one test from multiple choice to another format.

Example: introduce entire new strategy on how to test.

Media

Example: change font.

Example: add four full-motion video shots.

Example: replace all graphics with video.

 

Section IV
Management and Organizational Support

2-12. Determine management and organizational support. This section shows how to examine an organization to determine if support for IMI exists. Successful implementation of IMI depends on-

    a. Management support. There are three general types of management support required:

        (1) Commitment of resources. Upper-level management support is needed for successful development, implementation, and maintenance. Management controls the resources. Project development, purchasing hardware, software, and IMI; training the IMI team; facilities; and support personnel, may require additional resources. For additional resource information, see TRADOC Reg 350-70.

        (2) Enthusiasm for project. Enthusiastic managers can serve as project advocates, and promote an atmosphere of cooperation throughout the training organization. Managers can promote positive attitudes by their enthusiasm for a project.

        (3) Ability to meet staffing demands. Management support is essential in meeting staffing demands. A major concern is the selection, assignment, and training of personnel. Management should assign highly qualified personnel to the project, from start to finish. Although assignment longevity is hard to achieve in a military environment, it is a critical factor to the success of an IMI project. Personnel rotation can slow the IMI process, because of learning curves for new employees, and different perceptions of what is needed.

    b. Staff support. Interactive multimedia instruction development requires additional staff members with a variety of experience. Table 2-2 provides specific information on IMI team roles and activities, lists the IMI staff positions, and describes the possible activities that team members may perform.

    c. In-house support for IMI development. Use a letter of agreement, or the project plan, with different elements of the school, to clearly define the role of each. Include:

        (1) Project POC.

        (2) Team leader.

        (3) Point of contact for subject matter review/approval.

        (4) Point of contact's availability.

        (5) Handling of reviews of material.

        (6) How the task/TD proponent will support development and maintenance of the courseware.

        (7) Describe team member's roles, activities, and interactions.

        (8) Training of maintenance personnel (individual needs to be someone that has longevity at the school, and a civilian, who can either do the work, or train someone else to do the work).

        (9) How individual trials and validations are conducted; who is responsible for validations; and where the master materials are stored and maintained.

    d. Hardware development support for IMI. The development team should use a common platform to support the IMI development requirement, as detailed in Classroom XXI requirements. Use a dedicated computer system for demonstration purposes. This computer should have the same specifications as the delivery platform for the courseware. Adequately ground computers; utilize surge protectors, if available. Make available several backup (spare) computers, or quick (24 hour) maintenance. Technical support personnel are available to solve minor hardware problems. Additionally, install, and enforce the use of, a virus scan program. Use monitors that reflect the best quality graphics displayed in the training material. Provide a laser printer to each two developers or graphic personnel, or set up printers that are networked, or shared by the development team. If networking is not available, consider procuring A-B Switches, and attach them to the computers and printers shared by developers and graphic personnel. Stock adequate supplies of paper, toner cartridges, CD-ROMs, and other needed supplies. See appendix B, paragraph B-8, for additional information on IMI equipment.

    e. Software support for IMI. Selection of both authoring system, and graphic packages, should meet the needs of the IMI development requirement. Purchase sufficient authoring system packages, with supporting documentation, for each member of the development team. Purchase sufficient graphic software packages for each graphic designer, with an extra copy for the training developers. Ensure licensing rights have been obtained. They should not have restrictions, or recurring fees, to distribute training material developed with the software throughout the government (federal, state, and local). See appendix B, paragraph B-7, for additional information on software support tools for IMI.

    f. Improve level of organizational support. Use Checklist 3 (app K) to identify an action, and develop a plan for improving the level of organizational support. It lists the critical support category/levels, the potential results of a support deficit, and suggested actions to reduce the deficit, or increase the level of support.

    g. Contract support. One potential solution to a support deficit, in the area of staffing requirements, is contracting IMI to a commercial training development company. Use Checklist 4 (app K) to determine if contractor support is required.

    h. Facility requirements. Facility requirements affect development of IMI courseware.

        (1) Development system facility requirements. A building arranged as an office with work areas partitioned in individual cubicles, or areas that would accommodate a maximum of two team members, is needed. This would allow privacy, and a familiarity with the development efforts of the team members. If possible, locate compatible team members in a two-person work area. The furniture should have storage space for supplemental materials (software user manuals, design specifications), adequate workspace for the developer, and adequate space to accommodate the computer system and a printer.

        (2) Special facility requirements. The rooms housing the development team and development systems should have adequate heating, cooling, rest rooms, sound barriers, and power. Provide building keys to all team members, to meet the flexible time schedules of the team members, and to prevent lost time.

Section V
Quality Control and Milestone Planning

2-13. Establish quality control procedures.

    a. To ensure a quality IMI product, the project plan must include a detailed process for performing QC throughout the project. Quality control is everyone's responsibility, and requires an environment in which all personnel, involved with the project, want to improve quality continuously. Effective QC requires establishing standards, and assigning responsibility for achieving the standards. Provide the QC procedures to the project team members. Update the QC procedures throughout the project, to ensure that lessons learned in one part of the project are applied to the remaining work that needs accomplishing.

    b. Follow these steps to establish QC procedures:

        (1) Establish a review and approval process for each IMI design and development product.

        (2) Develop QC Job Aids (checklists).

        (3) Assign QC responsibilities.

        (4) Maintain continuous quality improvement by-

            (a) Identifying what needs reviewing, who will review it, and criteria for improvement.

            (b) Determining the causes of the problem.

            (c) Identifying solutions to the problem.

            (d) Implementing the selected solution.

            (e) Evaluating the results of the solution.

            (f) Monitoring the project's progress for continuous improvement.

        (5) Obtain approval of the outputs or products at each checkpoint.

    c. Review and approval process. Establish a review and approval process, to make sure all products meet quality standards. Use Checklist 5 (app K) to establish a review and approval process.

    d. Ensure completion of review and approval sheet. The review and approval sheet is filled out and attached to each product associated with a lesson. As the product is reviewed and approved, the approving authority signs the document. The document is completed for each product associated with the lesson. The primary author dates the sheet, telling the reviewer when the review is due for completion. Sign the sheet after all suggested corrections are made, checked, and approved. Products not approved are returned to the author for correction; checked again; and, if appropriate, approved.

    e. Quality control team responsibilities. Quality control is the responsibility of the entire development team, and each member has specific review and approval duties. Table 2-6 shows the general QC responsibilities for each team member, and the importance of the review and approval sign-off.

Table 2-6
QC responsibilities of IMI development team

Position Title

Quality Control Responsibility

Significance of Review and Approval Sign-Off

Courseware Developer

Authors an easy-to-understand, technically accurate lesson that is consistent with design documents.

Product was reviewed and judged satisfactory and consistent with design documents.

Instructional Designer

Reviews lesson products for instructional integrity and conformance with design documents. Validates product.

Product was reviewed and judged instructionally sound and consistent with design documents.

Subject Matter

Expert

Reviews lesson products for technical accuracy, currency, and completeness.

Product was reviewed and judged technically accurate, current, and complete.

Courseware Programmer

Programs lessons, according to design documents and instructions. Develops clear, easy-to-read graphics, according to storyboard instructions.

Operational lesson was reviewed online and judged "bug" free, and operating as specified. Static graphics are clear; animated graphics operate as specified; and correct video and graphics are called into lesson at the correct location and time.

Graphic Imaging Personnel

Develops clear, uncluttered, easy-to-read graphics, according to storyboard instructions.

Online graphics were reviewed and judged correct, clear, and easy to read.

Media Specialist

Produces high quality, clear video according to shot list and storyboard instructions.

Video was reviewed and judged of high quality.

Team Leader/

Project Manager

Reviews lesson products for instructional integrity, and conformance with design documents.

Product was reviewed and judged instructionally sound and consistent with design documents. Operational lessons are user-friendly and consistent.

    f. Quality control job aids. The review checklists are the primary QC job aids. These checklists outline each product ready for review, in conjunction with the personnel responsible for each. A separate checklist is made for each courseware product (see app K). Two samples are checklist 6 (a sample checklist used for SME design review), and checklist 7 (a sample checklist used by a Team Leader or Project Manager for a final lesson review). Many items on the checklists are taken directly from the instructional design documents. The IMI job aids may use some of the same information.

    g. Report discrepancies. Quality control procedures should also provide a means to document discrepancies. Checklist 8 (app K) provides a sample format for recording discrepancies in the IMI. The form identifies the reviewer, review date, product type, discrepancy report number, lesson name, and discrepancy location. Space is provided to describe the discrepancy, suggest corrective actions, and resolve the discrepancy.

    h. Initial reviews. Conduct an initial review upon completion of the FIRST topic that would include all lesson components. This review is to ensure conventions are being followed, strategy is acceptable, and there is a correct combination of text and graphics. The developer should make all necessary changes to the lesson. Two experienced developers, and the team leader, should review the first topic. Depending on the amount of review comments, this topic may require reviewing again.

    i. Team reviews. Lesson developers should review their lessons and make all changes. The developers' review is all encompassing, checking every branch point, and every test item. Only when the developers are sure that everything is working in the lesson, should they give it to anyone else to review. Reviews by developers and peer/team leaders are included as an integral part of the lesson development time frame.

    j. Review. Hold review comments until input from all team reviews are incorporated at one time. Incorporate all team review changes before sending to the SME for technical or doctrinal review.

2-14. Evaluate the quality of any IMI product. Use sample checklist 9 (app K) to evaluate and improve the quality of any IMI product developed, and review storyboards, or the final product. Place a check in the middle column if the corresponding guideline is included in the program. If a guideline does not apply, indicate so with "N/A," for not applicable. Document with comments, where appropriate.

2-15. Develop IMI project milestones.

    a. Establish a detailed milestone schedule to keep the project on track, and ensure completion in a timely manner. Establish milestones for starting and completing each IMI product, and for any processes required for their development. Milestones must account for time required for reviews, revisions or corrections, and approvals. The type of IMI will determine the number, and length, of milestones required.

    b. Required milestones. Identify the date the IMI is required for the school or field use. This date is the major determinant of production milestones. Establish timelines and milestones for all appropriate actions in the design, development, and validation phases.

    c. Develop milestones. If possible, use computer software to develop the milestone schedule. Define completion dates for each interim and final IMI product (i.e., timelines for each activity, projected completion date, actual completion date, and review and approval time). If possible, use computer software to develop the milestone schedule, and provide a copy to the development team, to pace their efforts, and the IMI management team, to track progress.

    d. When developing milestones for lesson development, define the completion dates for each interim and final IMI product:

        (1) Examine the amount of material involved in each lesson.

        (2) Assign one course developer to the development of a module, if possible.

        (3) Consider the development time for a lesson.

        (4) Consider lag time associated with the development cycle.

        (5) Build in time for the train-up of personnel.

        (6) Realign the milestone schedule, when necessary, for unknown factors such as:

            (a) Special project assignments.

            (b) Emergency leave.

            (c) Court duty.

            (d) Equipment maintenance and availability.

        (7) Build in time for holidays and high leave time.

    e. Time frames. Provided below are some suggested time frames for the development of a one-hour lesson. These times will vary significantly, depending upon the complexity of the lesson being developed. Use of preprogrammed templates and automation programs, such as "Synergy," may speed up development times.

        (1) 1 week -- draft a lesson.

        (2) 1 week -- polish a lesson.

        (3) 1 week -- add graphics and tests.

        (4) 1 week -- test, review, and finalize.

        (5) 1 week -- revisions:

            (a) 2 days -- after SME review.

            (b) 2 days -- after trials and validations.

            (c) 1 day -- after validations.

    f. Workload prioritization. Any changes in workload prioritization will change the milestone schedule. Keep the total team apprised of any change in priority.

    g. Controlling variations. Project plans estimate what will happen. Invariably, variations from the plan occur during execution. If that is the case:

        (1) Determine if the variances are acceptable, and adjust the plan accordingly.

        (2) Establish criteria for acceptable variance ahead of time, to make project management easier.

        (3) Direct the priority-of-effort to those areas outside of the established criteria for acceptable variance.


Chapter 3
Prepare IMI Approval Documents

3-1. Submission of approval package.

    a. Justify and approve AV and IMI training material, intended for TRADOC or Armywide use, at Department of the Army (DA) level. Approve joint use material at DoD level. Enter information on training production, and products, into DoD databases. Approve and acquire general-purpose data-processing hardware, software, and data networking devices required for employment of IMI, according to TRADOC Pam 25-72. Army VI activities will include the DoD forms, listed below, in the final production package sent to ATSC. These forms are currently available on-line in three fillable formats: Adobe, Perform Flow, and Form Flow 2.0 (http://web1.whs.osd.mil/ICDHOME/DD2500-.htm).

        (1) DD Form 2830 (General Talent Release).

        (2) DD Form 2831 (General Release Where Talent Fee or Other Remuneration or Recompense Accures to the Participant).

        (3) DD Form 2832 (Release Granting the U.S. Government Permission to Photograph or Otherwise Record the Visual Image or Sound of Private Property).

        (4) DD Form 2833 (Release Granting the U.S. Government Permission to Record and Produce Program Material Transmitted by Educational or Commercial Broadcast Stations).

    b. Approval considerations. Approval authorities, at the proponent school, should consider the following factors, when reviewing the requested production requirement:

        (1) Legitimate need.

        (2) Essentiality and priority, according to the training plans and mission.

        (3) Production acquisition, or procurement lead-time. Production, user, and support costs.

        (4) Product life expectancy, frequency of use, and size of the target audience.

        (5) Method, level, cost of distribution, and revision requirements.

        (6) Compatibility with other existing, or planned, training products.

    c. Approval package requirements. The proponent activity is required to submit an initial approval package according to AR 25-1, TRADOC Reg 350-70, and DoDI 1322.20. Submit completed approval package to Commander, U.S. Army Training Support Center, ATTN: ATIC-ITST-T, Building 1557, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5168. The package consists of-

        (1) DD Form 1995 (Visual Information Production Request and Report), OR

        (2) DD Form 2568 (Defense Instructional Technology Information System Report).

        (3) TRADOC Form 888-R (Basis of Issue Plan).   

        (4) DAVIS/DITIS search.

    d. Procedure. Follow these steps to prepare approval documents:

        (1) Review inventory. (DAVIS/DITIS). (See para 3-2.)   

        (2) Conduct a DAVIS/DITIS search. (See para 3-3.)

        (3) Prepare DD Form 1995. (See para 3-4.)

        (4) Prepare DD Form 2568. (See para 3-5.)

        (5) Prepare the Basis of Issue Plan (BOIP). (See para 3-6.)

3-2. Review inventory (DAVIS/DITIS).

    a. The two merged DoD database listing products currently available, or under development, are the DAVIS, for all DoD-owned VI products, and DITIS, for all IMI products currently available, or under development. In addition, trade publications identify commercially produced training products. Search these inventories to identify products that may satisfy the training development requirement. Once identified, review the available product, to determine its ability to satisfy the requirement, prior to initiation of production.

    b. Purpose. Training products are expensive, and time-consuming, to produce. Use or modification of existing products (DoD-owned or commercially available) will reduce production cost and time. Trade publications, commercial catalogs, and Internet sites identify training products available from private sources. These publications list commercial training products for comparable civilian skills or equipment. Army Regulation 25-1, paragraph 7-8a(11)(b) contains procedures for purchase of commercial products, and requisite releases for their use in military training.

    c. DoD products. Use the APD electronic publications and forms database to order or download reference materials required for the IMI project.

    d. Visual information productions. Visual information productions are organized and unified presentations, developed according to a plan or script, containing visual imagery, sound, or both; and used to convey information, and require life-cycle management. Visual information productions generally stand alone in self-contained presentations, and are linear, nonlinear, interactive, or a combination. Although there are two VI production categories, they must both comply with AR 25-1. The two categories are-

        (1) Local - supports the needs of a local installation and its area of responsibility, with no dissemination of the production outside this area.

        (2) Nonlocal - supports multi-installations, major Army command (MACOM), Field Operating Activity, Army, or DoD-wide use.

3-3. Conduct a DAVIS/DITIS search.

    a. The DAVIS/DITIS database is used to manage DoD VI, IMI production, and activities, to facilitate resource sharing within DoD. It includes nonlocal data on VI production, procurement, inventory, distribution, and project status. It provides an automated, on-line catalog of IMI used in military training, and also contains information on all DoD-owned IMI, whether fielded, or under development. Access the system's database to identify IMI for review, and determine if it meets, or is cost-effective to modify to meet the IMI training development requirement.

    b. What to expect. The DAVIS/DITIS search produces a printout of all DoD and Federal agency products to which DoD currently has reproduction rights, are under development, or planned. The printout will include the search number, the key words used to conduct the search, and a list of product titles (if any) that match the key words.

    c. Procedure. Follow the steps below to conduct the DAVIS/DITIS search:

        (1) Select the subject area search key words. Use an unlimited number of key words (i.e., Bradley Fighting Vehicle, alcohol, or leadership).

        (2) Search the DAVIS/DITIS website at http://afishp6.afis.osd.mil/dodimagery/davis/.

        (3) Review results of the search. If the DAVIS/DITIS search identified any products, go to Step 4; if the search did not identify any products, go to Step 5.

        (4) Determine if the identified products are applicable and suitable for the planned production by-

            (a) Obtaining a copy of each identified product.

            (b) Reviewing each product, to decide if it is usable, or needs revision, to satisfy the project requirement.

            (c) Annotating the results of the review beside the product title on the DAVIS search printout (e.g., "Out of date, Subject not pertaining to the Army, Incorrect model of equipment").

        (5) Include the DAVIS/DITIS search printout in the approval package sent to ATSC.

    d. For more information of DAVIS/DITIS search procedures, see DA Pam 25-91, chapter 8.

3-4. Prepare DD Form 1995 (videotape only).

    a. DA Pam 25-91 requires submission of a DD Form 1995 for all products containing VI. Department of Defense and DA use information from the form to approve and manage VI productions. Fill out the two-page DD Form 1995 on-line.

    b. When to submit. Include the original DD Form 1995 with the initial approval package. Submit an updated DD Form 1995 for the project, whenever changes occur during production, and again when the project is complete.

    c. Responsibility. The designated project manager prepares the DD Form 1995. The instructor and/or writer develops or researches input for the form's preparation.

    d. Procedures. Follow the steps below to prepare the DD Form 1995.

        (1) Complete the DD 1995.

        (2) Obtain the approval signature on the installation ("Office of primary responsibility requester" (Block 18g)) from the Office of Primary Responsibility at the proponent school.

        (3) Submit the completed form, with the approval package, to: Commander, U.S. Army Training Support Center, ATTN: ATIC-CO-SC, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5168.

        (4) Submit the final DD Form 1995 when the production is complete, to update the final production costs and final BOIP.

3-5. Prepare DD Form 2568.

    a. Department of Defense requires submitting a DD Form 2568 for all IMI projects. Department of Defense uses information from the form to manage IMI production and inventories. DD Form 2568 is a two-sided form. It identifies the IMI program, and describes the program's software and hardware.

    b. When to submit. When a training requirement has been established, submit the original DD Form 2568 with the initial IMI approval package. Provide an updated DD Form 2568, for the IMI project, within 30 days following completion of any changes or revisions to the IMI program, or the IMI program development.

    c. Responsibility. The manager of the IMI project prepares the DD Form 2568. The instructor, and/or writer, develops or researches input for the form's preparation.

    d. Procedure. Follow the steps below to prepare DD Form 2568.

            (1) Complete sections I through III.

        (2) Submit DD Form 2568, with above sections completed, with the initial IMI approval package, to ATSC at the address indicated in item (e).

        (3) Complete section IV after completion of IMI development or procurement.

        (4) Complete sections V and VI after completion of IMI development or procurement.

        (5) Proponent school submits an updated DD Form 2568 (sections IV through VI) with current status, to ATSC, within 30 days following approval, changes, revision, completion, or termination of the IMI project development or procurement. Forms are required to update or remove record in database, as necessary.

    e. Entering DITIS data. Plans call for automated DITIS data entry in the future. Until the system is fully automated, ATSC will manually enter data. Submit initial and updated DD Forms 2568 to Commander, U.S. Army Training Support Center, ATTN: ATIC-ITST-T, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5168.

3-6. Prepare the Basis of Issue Plan (BOIP).

    a. The BOIP prescribes the number of copies of the courseware provided to active and reserve units, TRADOC schools, and other military activities or organizations. TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter VI-10-3, requires preparation of TRADOC Form 888-R for distribution requirements. The two-sided form lists installations by MACOMs.

    b. Distribution process. DoD Armed Forces Information System, Joint Visual Information Service Distribution Activity, distributes all nonlocal training products to TRADOC or other service schools, units, organizations, or commands. Products can support training MOS, or equipment performance requirements. Coordinate with the Audio Visual Production Officer (AVPRO) to identify the Visual Information Training Support Center (VI/TSC) that supports the unit, activity, or organization to receive the products. The location of the VI/TSC determines which installation receives the distribution. The unit, activity, or organization obtains the product from their supporting VI/TSC.

    c. When to submit. Submit the BOIP form with the initial approval package to ATSC. Resubmit this form with the final package, if the BOIP changes.

    d. Responsibility. The manager of the training project prepares the TRADOC Form 888-R. The instructor and/or writer develops or researches input for the form's preparation.

    e. Procedure. Follow the steps below to prepare the BOIP.

        (1) Identify the units, organizations, and/or activities to receive the product. Note: Coordinate with the new equipment training or proponency office to identify units or organizations having the equipment or MOS. Check with other TRADOC schools for their requirements.

        (2) Coordinate with the AVPRO or local VI/TSC to identify the location of the VI/TSC that supports the identified units or organizations.

        (3) Determine the number of copies of the initial distribution to send to each VI/TSC. Note: This is the sum of the quantities for the units or organizations to receive the IMI that each VI/TSC supports.

        (4) Complete TRADOC Form 888-R by-

        (a) Entering the quantities determined in Step 3 by the appropriate installation containing the VI/TSC.

        (b) Attaching a list of units or organizations, determined in Step 2, to receive the product from the listed installation VI/TSC.

            (c) Completing the form's header information, using information from DD Form 1995, or DD Form 2568.

        (5) Coordinate the completed TRADOC Form 888-R with the U.S. Army National Guard and Reserve advisors at the proponent school.

        (6) Include the completed TRADOC Form 888-R in the approval package.

___________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 4
Designing the Course

4-1. Interactive courseware.

    a. This chapter provides guidance on how to design ICW, and the application of the training design activity and AV display/application principles to design the ICW, which addresses one or more of the human senses, to maximize learning. Interactive courseware refers to course materials, presented or controlled by a computer, that use multiple requirements for learner responses, as a primary means of facilitating mastery of a task, supporting skill, or knowledge. Interactive courseware is a type of IMI, and is also called CBI, CBT, and Web Based Training (WBT).

    b. Interactive courseware is a means for delivering instruction; it is not a method of instruction (MOI). It is essentially individualized self-paced or group-paced interactive instruction, combined with multimedia presentations. Interactive instruction is student and group centered, performance-oriented training, that requires students and groups to practice what they learn, receive appropriate feedback, and take tests. The priority for interaction is between the learner and the equipment/subject matter. In ICW, the computer courseware controls the training content, delivery pace, and learning sequence, based on learner input. The courseware is designed, using a variety of MOI, to lead the student, and/or group, through the learning process. The design translates each individual critical task, and supporting skills and knowledge, into sequential, progressive training. It includes the creation of story treatments, scripts, and storyboards. Interactive courseware may include, but is not limited to, text, programmed instruction, audiotapes, videotapes, slides, films, television, and computers.

4-2. Interactive courseware design concept.

    a. Foundation. Interactive courseware may comprise a portion of, or be the sole delivery methodology for, an entire course. If the ICW is one module of a course, design it as an integral part of the education/training course of which it is a part. The ICW design is based on the previously (usually) completed course design (course structure, course map, Learner Evaluation Plan, learning objectives), the task analysis information, and the target audience description. An ICW product (course, phase, or module) contains all the materials required for the learner to master the included lessons. Each lesson contains a TLO and supporting ELOs (mandatory for ICW), with supporting learning steps and activities. These are to include criterion referenced, and simulated performance tests built into the courseware, as appropriate, to determine if the student can perform the TLOs to the established standards. Design and develop the courseware following proven training and education principles.

    b. Multimedia presentation uses more than one presentation medium. In training, more than one medium is used to convey the content of instruction. Media available for use may include, but is not limited to, text, programmed instruction, audiotapes, videotapes, slides, films, television, and computers. Multimedia uses graphics, digital audio, animation, and up to full-motion digital video. Multimedia is also an industry term, used to define both presentation and training, which is delivered via a multimedia workstation/personal computer. Deliver multimedia via hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM, intranet, or Internet. In addition to normal course design, AV Instructional Multimedia work includes:

        (1) Identifying multimedia requirements.

        (2) Querying the DITIS and DAVIS.

        (3) Coordinating with the Training Support Center (TSC)/VI manager for assistance in production and postproduction of multimedia training programs and products, and TRADOC proponent and/or user community, to minimize redundancy and duplication.

        (4) Development and coordination of a BOIP for multimedia products, to include Active and Reserve components.

        (5) Identifying and applying appropriate classification markings, and foreign disclosure restriction statements.

        (6) Obtaining AV instructional program design approval.

        (7) Validating the product, and supporting materials that are required.

        (8) Maintaining current training products.

        (9) Coordinating the preparation of the master copy, reproduction, and distribution, via the digital library.

        (10) Coordinating with, and receiving approval of, proponent legal and safety offices.

        (11) Identifying support requirements to develop and implement the proposed ICW, to include:

            (a) Justifying and requesting production funds.

            (b) Requesting logistical support.

            (c) Identifying the requirement for, and requesting production services, to include the Personal Service Contract Support, as appropriate.

            (d) Coordinating with the proposed users/target population to identify hardware platform availability and constraints.

    c. Principles. Interactive courseware is of value for presenting learning material in any situation that will maximize individual or group learning. It provides a means of practicing activities at reduced implementation costs, and without causing damage to individuals or equipment. Each member of a group may have a different role to play in the training exercise. In designing ICW, apply the following principles:

        (1) Maximize student interactivity-it is paramount.

        (2) Present information for learning in small chunks.

        (3) Present information in small sequential steps (simple to complex, prerequisite knowledge/skills).

        (4) Provide feedback in the context of the learned material. Sometimes it is provided immediately; delay feedback to permit the learner to identify personal or team performance deficiencies.

        (5) Permit learners to proceed (learn) at their own pace within certain limits (time allowed, mandatory completion date, retries permitted). Note: For effectiveness, management controls are based on the time it takes to complete the training, and the number of times the learner may (is permitted to) redo a lesson, or take a test, to prove mastery of the objective. Schedule follow-on learning, at a precise date and location that the learner must participate in, to meet Army-directed training requirements.

        (6) Material presentations take advantage of intended media benefits.

        (7) Allow repeating of exercises/simulations many times, using/developing different solutions to problems; e.g., "what if" drills with in-time limitations.

        (8) Expose learners to unpredictable situations (complexity, frequency, and timing), to maximize learning, and improve job performance (enhance transfer and improve ability to solve problems).

        (9) Incorporate collaborative learning opportunities.

4-3. General ICW design procedures. This paragraph lists and describes the general procedures for the design of an ICW module or course. The procedures and major requirements below apply to training course design, as well as an ICW program. A courseware revision effort may not require all of these steps, if the IMI is only a part of the overall course. Appropriate chapters in TRADOC Reg 350-70 are referenced for additional guidance.

    a. Establish the design team.

        (1) Include the same individuals who conducted the analysis, and designed the TATS course.

        (2) Use the same team for development. For additional information on establishing the team and their roles and responsibilities, go to chapter II, section II. Find additional guidance in TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapters VI-6, II-3-3 and II-3-4.

    b. Study the supporting documentation.

        (1) Determine the purpose for the Total Army Training System Course, by reviewing the appropriate Individual Training.

        (2) Review the Course Administrative Data (CAD) and determine:

            (a) Estimated course length.

            (b) Purpose and scope of the planned training.

            (c) Course training prerequisites.

        (3) Review the CATS Short-range Individual Training Strategy, to determine what training products need producing to train the tasks, and supporting skills and knowledge. Note: Update this CATS and the Individual Training Plan, if required, as a result of this design effort. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapters II-8, IV-2, and VI-6 for additional information.

    c. Study the task analysis data. The following also applies to collective tasks, when ICW is being designed to provide training on collective tasks. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapters V-2, VI-1 and VI-2 for additional information.

        (1) Acquire a current list of the critical tasks trained by the course.

        (2) Identify/verify which tasks, and supporting skills and knowledge, are trained or supported by the ICW.

        (3) Acquire current task performance specifications, for each task trained or supported by the ICW.

        (4) Verify completeness, accuracy, and currency of the critical task data with the proponent or SMEs, as appropriate.

        (5) Acquire/create the task-skill/knowledge matrix.

        (6) Use the task analysis data to design and develop the course/courseware.

    d. Study course design documents. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapters III-2, VI-6, VI-7, and appendix H for additional information. Note: If ICW is a complete course, complete the course design.

        (1) Acquire/create the course outline.

        (2) Identify education/training prerequisites (courses).

        (3) Study/write the TLO.

            (a) Identify/verify/write supporting ELOs.

            (b) Establish/verify/write learning steps/activities, and identified MOI.

        (4) Acquire/create the course map-the visual representation of the mandatory training sequence of instruction. Present the content in this order. This is usually, but not always, based on the order of performance. The relationship of skills and knowledge, to performance step and tasks, show the performance requirements. Branching requirements are shown.

        (5) Identify prerequisite phases, modules, tasks, skills, and knowledge.

        (6) Validate student performance measures/tests.

        (7) Establish length of training.

    e. Design the ICW Module and Course. Include-

        (1) The module and lesson titles and numbers.

        (2) Information as to whether this module will, or will not be, available for self-motivated training. Establish average for academic time, and maximum academic time, a learner has to complete the asynchronous learning material.

        (3) Environmental factors and considerations.

        (4) Safety notes and cautions.

        (5) A risk assessment code assigned to each lesson.

        (6) Sustainment training requirements.

        (7) Terminal learning objectives, ELOs, and learning steps and activities.

        (8) A course map and detailed top-level flowchart, with supporting narrative for the courseware.

        (9) Learner performance measurement/testing.

        (10) Learner remediation.

        (11) Classification markings.

        (12) Foreign disclosure restriction statements.

For additional information, see TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapters I-1, VI-6, VI-7, VI-10, and appendix H.

    f. Comply with copyright and intellectual property laws. Anything incorporated into the training product (e.g., text, images, music, audio, or video) developed by others, requires permission for use, according to the Copyright Act of 1976, U.S. Code Title 17, and the 1998 Act. See appendix E, and TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter I-1 for additional information on copyright.

    g. Update the Student Evaluation Plan to include-

        (1) Course and ICW completion criteria.

        (2) Academic time limit for completion of each lesson (mandatory).

        (3) A synopsis of each test.

        (4) Retake limit (mandatory) for each test.

See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter VI-7, and appendix I, for additional information.

    h. Update the Course Management Plan (CMP). This includes but is not limited to-

        (1) Identifying requirements for managing web, CD-ROMs, floppy disks, and adjunctive material.

        (2) Identifying administrative requirements.

        (3) Detailing management of the ICW (e.g., distribution, replacement, and revision).

        (4) Describing management of training records.

See chapter VI-8 and appendix E of TRADOC Reg 350-70 for additional information.

    i. Prepare and include the required standard files, and follow the TATS course checklist. (See TRADOC Reg 350-70, app K, for additional information.)

    j. Prepare and update the appropriate Training Requirements Analysis System documents (CAD, program of instruction (POI)). (See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chap II-8, for additional information.)

    k. Obtain design and POI approvals. Include the signature blocks of reviewing and approving authorities. Note: The design is completed when the appropriate proponent command authority approves development of the course design. (See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chap VI-6, for additional information.)

4-4. Interactive courseware design requirements.

    a. Design ICW requiring the learner to focus on acquiring the skill, or learning the supporting knowledge (information), of the lesson. This is accomplished by structuring the ICW using design components, selected methods of instruction, program and learner controls, and training activities into a concise, efficient, and effective training package. Consider the establishment of norms as an integral part of training design. See, HQ TRADOC memorandum, ATTG-CF, subject: Norms for the Army Distance Learning Program (TADLP) Courseware Design.

    b. Facilitate learning. Design the ICW to facilitate learning by-

        (1) Providing a mandatory training sequence and structure that maximizes learning and training effectiveness, ensures learning occurs, and minimizes training costs.

        (2) Providing for control of learner progress through the training, based on learner's ability and instructional requirements.

        (3) Ensuring the appropriate feedback is provided to the student, in the context of the learning.

        (4) Learning is enhanced, and learning transfer occurs.

        (5) Incorporating appropriate interactivity.

Note: The course map permits showing a mandatory presentation sequence, as well as showing where no mandatory sequence is required.

4-5. Presentation requirements.

    a. There are certain fundamental requirements for presenting training to students, which increase the potential for learning to occur. These requirements apply to ICW, as well as instructor-led training. The difference is that they are built into the ICW, and are more or less permanent, whereas instructors can either increase, or decrease, the chance for learning to occur.

    b. Presentation events. Plan and carry out the following common presentation events when developing IMI:

        (1) Provide guidance on how to use the courseware, acquire help, etc. Ensure the student knows how to use the courseware, and is not distracted from learning that will occur.

        (2) Gain and retain learner attention. Ensure the learner attention is focused on what needs learning. Accomplish this in the first minute of instruction, and maintain throughout the instructional presentation.

        (3) Establish a framework for the learner.

            (a) Clearly inform the students as to why they need to know the information/skill that is being taught, and the consequences of poor or nonperformance.

            (b) Identify the job or battlefield conditions that make learning the material essential to the student.

        (4) Include a short motivational introduction to the lesson. The motivational introduction is a written dialog, still graphics, or a short video, designed to peak the student's interest, and focus them on the material they are about to learn. Only use video if absolutely essential.

        (5) Inform the learner of the TLO requirements. Ensure the learner knows exactly what is expected so he/she will focus learning efforts on what is required. Display on the screen: "At the completion of this lesson you [the student] will demonstrate that you can perform this learning objective." Ensure the learner knows-

            (a) Time requirements (maximum time to complete).

            (b) Date requirements (date training requires completion).

            (c) Pretesting procedures, and results from successful or unsuccessful completion.

        (6) Identify the risk assessment level for this lesson.

        (7) Identify environmental considerations.

            (a) Maximum time allotted to complete the course.

            (b) Specific tests to satisfactorily complete to graduate.

            (c) Mandatory completion date. Note: Include the specific date during scheduling.

        (8) Inform the learner of other requirements to meet to successfully complete the course/courseware. Ensure the learner knows the pretesting procedures, and how results affect successful or unsuccessful completion.

        (9) Present the instructional material.

            (a) Ensure the learner can perform the TLOs to the prescribed standard.

            (b) Enhance retention.

            (c) Enhance learning transfer, to improve learner's ability to perform on the job what has been taught. Note: This includes presenting and using learning activities, such as demonstrating operations and procedures, and providing opportunities for learner to practice the required action.

        (10) Provide feedback. Provide positive, timely, and appropriate feedback (even praise) to improve performance.

        (11) Provide summaries.

        (12) Include a means to measure learner performance.

            (a) Ensure learners have mastered the learning objectives. Transmit this material to the instructor/classroom manager.

            (b) Ensure the learner has satisfactorily completed all academic requirements for course completion.

            (c) Acquire date for improving learning material.

4-6. Learning activities.

    a. Learning activities are approaches to presenting instructional materials in order to motivate learners and stimulate learning, improve retention, and enhance learning transfer. It is an activity that leads a learner toward achievement of a learning objective. Learning steps/activities are based on the tasks and supporting skills and knowledge identified during task analysis. The learning steps/activities are identified and delineated when the learning objective is broken down into its component parts. An explicit hierarchical relationship, consisting of terminal learning objective, enabling learning objectives, and learning step/activity, is established when designing the lesson, and maintained during development of the courseware.

        (1) For learning steps and activities already written, verify they are appropriate for the supported learning objective, and are effectively used in the ICW. Rewrite if they are not adequate. Never select learning activities that are at cross-purposes to the objective; i.e., an activity such as analyzing situations, when the objective is to recall information.

        (2) Design a combination of learning activities that capture interest, make sense, and have instructional values (not just entertain), and require interactivity. If lessons have similar objectives, stay with a single combination of activities (strategies). Require active, meaningful learner involvement at least 30 percent of the time for synchronous instruction; up to 40 to 50 percent learner involvement for asynchronous (canned instruction). Pay careful attention to involving learners during the middle of the instructional period, by incorporating a variety of learner-learner, learner-content, and learner-instructor interactions.

        (3) Learning steps and activities give the designer the tools and templates for-

            (a) Presenting information in small segments or "chunks" to enhance learning.

            (b) Demonstrating a desired performance.

            (c) Providing student drill and practice; i.e., simulated repair or operation of an item of equipment. Give learners control through branching, exiting and reentry, managing the pace of presentation, and choosing assignments, exercises, and tests.

            (d) Providing for repetition of required action.

            (e) Providing for remediation.

            (f) Testing or measuring student performance.

            (g) Presenting examples of desired performance.

            (h) Providing for student input.

            (i) Presenting memory devices.

            (j) Maintaining learner interest and involvement.

            (k) Build a level of self-confidence. Remember to involve learners in activities using visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities. Involve the learner in scenarios/problems/situations that grab and hold learner attention.

        (4) Use an MOI to accomplish the purpose for each learning step and activity. (See TRADOC 350-70, app H, para H-I for listing of MOIs, their definitions, and use.)

        (5) Sequence learning steps and activities to provide for appropriate progression; presentation timing and pacing; variety; and flexibility.

    b. Examples of common IMI learning activities. Budget, timelines, authoring software, and development team expertise may create limits to the learning activities selected. Below are common learning activities used in IMI.

        (1) Drill and Practice.

            (a) This is a form of the Practical Exercise MOI. Drill and practice provides repetition. The learner must demonstrate competency to a previously established learning objective standard. Use drill and practice for the learner to-

    • Learn basic facts or terminology.
    • Reinforce and improve on, or perfect, previously learned skills, concepts, or behaviors.
    • Demonstrate performance to a previously established learning objective standard.

            (b) Follow the steps below to prepare drill and practice lessons or tests:

    • Determine what type drill or practice to use.
    • Establish the performance exhibited, or write a performance question.
    • Draft the graphics and AV.
    • Identify the required response.
    • Write any detractors used.
    • Identify the probable learner responses.
    • Determine computer actions for correct and incorrect responses.
    • Identify the number of tries the learner will have to respond to each question, or perform the required action.
    • Write feedback for correct and incorrect responses.
    • Identify branches for correct and incorrect responses.
    • Write any required remediation.
    • Provide positive reinforcement for correct responses.

        (2) Tutorial.

            (a) The primary uses of tutorials are to teach highly complex operations, and provide individual remedial assistance. When used in traditional instruction, the instructor works directly with an individual learner. It includes adaptive instruction, stimulates active participation, and promotes effectiveness and safety. When used in ICW, the instructor is replaced with built-in guidance and assistance to the learner. Tutorial and inquiry are similar to programmed instruction, breaking the presentation into small steps, followed by questions about each step. This approach allows for the evaluation of learner responses, branches based on the responses, and provides review and remediation, or actions the learner must take. Tutorials generally include parallel alternatives, or branches, to accommodate varying learner responses. Use tutorial and inquiry for the learner to-

    • Learn new material, by using text and feedback.
    • Learn a group of procedures or guidelines.
    • Receive tailored instruction and feedback statements.
    • Branch through paths, depending upon performance needs.
    • Receive responses tailored to requests for assistance.
    • Record performance achievement histories in real-time data.
    • Operate with minimal instruction.
    • Have remedial instructional requirements identified and provided.
    • Have performance monitored and evaluated.

            (b) Follow the steps below to prepare tutorial and inquiry for IMI lessons or tests:

    • Write the presentation.
    • Draft the graphics and AV.
    • Write the questions, correct answers, and any detractors.
    • Identify the probable trainee responses.
    • Determine computer actions, based on trainee responses, and requests for assistance.
    • Identify the number of tries the trainee will have.
    • Write feedback for responses.
    • Write the remediation exercises.
    • Provide parallel alternatives or branches for remediation, and requests for assistance.
    • Ensure the tutorial is properly sequenced.

        (3) Simulation.

            (a) A simulation is any representation, or imitation of reality, simulating part of a system, the operation of a system, and/or the environment in which a system will operate. There are live, virtual, and constructive simulations. Simulations-

    • Replace/complement live training.
    • Provide the means to safely practice an action or activity under any condition.
    • Are used for individual training (e.g., repair of equipment, gunnery, planned operations, conduct a counseling session) or group training (e.g., fighting a tank or tank company).
    • Are used in a single computer, or distributed over a LAN/wide area network (WAN) to multiple simultaneous users.

            (b) The simulation imitates a real situation to teach the material. The learner manipulates a computer-controlled model that replicates actual parts, equipment, situations, and people. Simulation allows learners to practice skills realistically, without affecting the actual equipment or environment.

            (c) Use simulation for the learner to-

    • Have more opportunity to practice simulated hands-on practical exercises.
    • Compress the normal time required to perform a task, task step, skill, or knowledge.
    • Realistically substitute for experiences, especially when danger or costs are high.
    • Input or change parameters for the output, or desired outcomes.
    • Access remote areas.
    • Experience enhancements.
    • Have practice problem-solving skills, as well as to evaluate their performance.

            (d) Follow the steps below to design/develop simulations for IMI lessons or tests:

    • Determine if a live, virtual, or constructive simulation, or a combination, is used.
    • Write the scenario for the simulation. A standardized scenario is available for use.
    • Establish the simulated activities needed to learn to perform the task(s) and supporting skills/knowledge.
    • Draft the graphics and AV.
    • Write the question or decision.
    • Identify/consider all probable trainee responses.
    • Determine computer actions, based on learner responses, by-
    • Identifying the number of attempts the learner will have.
    • Establishing the standards for acceptable performance.
    • Writing feedback for ALL possible responses, and establishing when and how the feedback is provided.
    • Create the remedial instruction or exercise.
    • Establish the branching requirements for each response. Each branch would provide the remediation, or continued instruction, based on learner performance.
    • Sequence the simulation internally.

        (4) Gaming.

            (a) Gaming applies the concepts of a game-rules, turn taking, winning, and losing-to a learning situation. The learners "play" the game by obtaining information, making decisions, and taking actions required to accomplish the game objective. Games are on a board, but with current technology, probably played on a computer. Note: The learner may tend to "play" in terms of winning and losing, instead of thinking in terms of learning objectives. Gaming provides-

    • A means for individuals to make decisions, take actions, and see the results of those actions, to accomplish the game objective, without killing people, or destroying materiel.
    • Feedback for increased learning.
    • A means of exposing learners, to determine solutions to unpredictable situations, to increase learning.
    • A means for motivating learners.
    • A means to see the result of play.

            (b) Gaming uses competition to motivate learner learning. The game-like structure places learners in competition with other learners, time, their own past performance, and the computer. Use gaming for the learner to-

    • Experience explicit competition.
    • Practice response strategies in a competitive environment.
    • Experience enhancements to conventional training techniques.
    • Have problem-solving skills evaluated.
    • Build decisionmaking skills.

            (c) Follow the steps below to design/develop games for ICW lessons or tests:

    • Identify the training purpose of the game.
    • Establish the game flow or branches.
    • Draft the graphics and AV.
    • Establish parameters, or limits, for trainee performance (e.g., time limit, score, accuracy, quantity, and rate).
    • Determine computer actions, based on learner responses.
    • Identify the number of attempts allowed, if applicable.
    • Write feedback for responses.
    • Determine how to display learner cumulative performance.
    • Determine how to store or archive game results.

    c. Additional information on learning activities is found in table 4-1 and TRADOC Reg 350-70, paragraph VI-6-8.

Table 4-1
Relationship of learning activities and discipline

Learning Discipline

Motivational Instructional Component

Retention and Transfer Components

Technical Training; i.e.,

  • Procedures.
  • Troubleshooting.
  • How instruction will help them in the future.
  • Issue a challenge
  • Identify names and functions.
  • Discovery exercises.
  • Definitions.
  • Illustrations.
  • Drill and practice.
  • Questions.
  • Equipment simulation.
  • Unguided simulation.
  • Questions with remediation.
  • Reinforcement.
  • Games such as matching, or concentration.

Soft Skills; i.e.,

  • Leadership.
  • Interpersonal.
  • Management.
  • Set up hypothetical situation.
  • Issue a challenge.
  • Dialogue tutorial with feedback.
  • Analyze situations.
  • Human modeling, with consequences and explanations.
  • Discrimination exercises.
  • Scenario and simulations, showing outcomes of decisions.
  • Scenario problems.
  • Scenario simulations.
  • After action reviews.
  • Create an action plan.

Fact and Figures; i.e.,

  • Policy.
  • Doctrine.
  • Vehicle recognition.
  • Anecdote.
  • Cause and effect.
  • Examples.
  • Questions with feedback.
  • Discovery.
  • Practice with feedback.
  • Sorting and sequencing information.
  • Questions with feedback.
  • Drill and practice exercises.
  • Games such as factual darts, matching, concentration, and beat the clock.

4-7. Methods of instruction.

    a. An MOI is a way of presenting instruction to the student. TRADOC Reg 350-70, Appendix H, paragraph H-1, provides a listing of MOI, with a general description, and uses for each. Not all MOI apply to ICW. Some MOI effective in ICW training are-

        (1) Case study.

        (2) Demonstration.

        (3) Flight: dual or solo (simulated).

        (4) Gaming.

        (5) Practical exercise (performance).

        (6) Research/study.

        (7) Role-playing.

        (8) Student panel.

        (9) Study assignment.

        (10) Test.

        (11) Test review.

        (12) Tutorial.

    b. Incorporate panel discussion and seminar MOIs into ICW, by linking to DL desktop VTT capabilities. This is difficult to schedule, but is incorporated with appropriate design. Use guest speaker MOI via text, video, or desktop VTT. Use video and desktop VTT sparingly, and only when of significant value.

4-8. Identify adjunctive materials.

    a. Adjunctive materials are materials used in conjunction with the courseware, to instruct a learning objective. Examples include, but are not limited to, regulations, pamphlets, circulars, student handouts, handbooks, and technical manuals. (For information on preparing adjunctive material, refer to paragraph 7-4, below, and TRADOC Reg 350-70, para VI-6-10). Specifically identify the portions of the ICW material the student can print out.

Note: Assign only home and preattendance studies that are essential to follow-on training. All home and preattendance studies are testable. Specifically identify the assignment (e.g., "read paragraph 3-5 in TRADOC Pam 700-85-1000").

    b. Limitations. Avoid using adjunctive material whenever possible. When necessary, provide only material absolutely essential to the learning required. Providing a link to a computer-stored copy is preferred. Adjunctive material delivered via CD-ROM is not as easy to keep up-to-date as material stored at an Internet site. Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions.

4-9. Interactive courseware design components.

    a. The components of ICW provide the capability to present and enhance training. Training designers should use these components to focus and maintain student attention on material presented for learning. Components include visuals (still and motion graphics), audio, and special effects (visual and audio). They also include how the training is presented (layout, timing, sequence), built-in program controls, and student-activated controls. Do not incorporate in the lesson any component that does not focus learner attention on the lesson content. Generally, the more of the student's senses involved in the learning, the greater the likelihood the student will retain the training.

    b. Interactive courseware design components, and their functions, are described below:

        (1) Text provides written dialog, and information on content presented for learning; directions to follow, navigational guides, etc.

        (2) Visuals present information with a graphic, to provide clarity.

        (3) Stills include simple or complex line drawings, art drawing, or photographs.

        (4) Motion presents information when movement MUST be shown for learning to occur.

        (5) Animation provides a graphic depiction of actions not adequately shown by still graphics or video; e.g., flow of water through a plumbing system, or piston and valve synchronized movement in an engine.

        (6) Narration. Spoken dialog provides relevant information, or directions, to the learner. A female voice is clear, and more easily understood. Narration may be content for language training.

        (7) Music establishes the mood or atmosphere for what is to occur. Music may be content for musician training.

        (8) Special Effects. To enhance learning, provide either smooth continuity from one screen to another, or emphasize something requiring learning.

        (9) Visuals enhance learning by providing visual emphasis to leaning points. Provides smooth transition from one visual to another; e.g., dissolve.

        (10) Audio enhances learning, by providing audio emphasis to learning points, by adding realism to visuals, when appropriately used, and providing a smooth transition of music; e.g., segue.

        (11) Layout is the presentation of information and visual elements on the screen, so it is pleasing, where expected, and provides eye flow from screen to screen.

        (12) Timing is the provision of information, when needed, at a pace conducive to learning. The learner may or may not control the pace, depending on the material being presented.

        (13) Continuity primarily refers to the consistency in the flow and presentation of the material being trained. It involves many diverse items, to include, but not limited to-

            (a) Standardization of controls.

            (b) Screen placement.

            (c) Audio use.

            (d) Special effect use.

            (e) Color use.

            (f) Visual flow.

            (g) Cue use.

        (14) Sequence is the order in which the content is presented. This is usually, but not always, based on the order of performance. The relationship of skills and knowledge, to performance step and tasks, show the performance requirements. There is no mandatory sequence for acquiring some knowledge. If there is none, let the learner choose the learning sequence. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter VI-6.

4-10. Interactive courseware design considerations. This paragraph identifies and describes major elements of ICW that provide the capability to build training management into the courseware. They are not listed in any particular order. The designer should make use of the capabilities of these elements, and integrate them into the courseware, to provide quality training. To avoid wasting time designing courseware that cannot be developed or implemented, know the authoring software capabilities and limitations.

    a. Interactivity refers to the activities performed by both the learner and the computer. This is critical to improve student learning and efficient training. Research has repeatedly shown individuals learn best on their own, using well-structured interactive courseware. Well-designed, self-paced training, with interactivity, has reduced training time, raised performance standards, reduced failure rates, and increased perceived value of the training. See paragraph 4-11.

    b. Branching is a technique for directing the student to required training, based on several factors, to include student's response, and the mandatory training sequence. The designer should incorporate branching into the ICW. It may contain branching within a branch. See paragraph 4-12.

    c. Controls. Interactive courseware must have controls built in, so that during implementation, the student is guided through the mandatory learning activities, based on the mandatory training sequence; student-provided responses; and the student's progress and capabilities. Ensure the determination is made so that the student can successfully accomplish the learning objective. See paragraph 4-13.

    d. Pretesting (testing out) measures a soldier or civilian task competency before training begins; measures performance against a criterion; focuses training on what soldiers/civilians need to be able to do; and provides links to this prescriptive training. It allows for testing out of lessons, modules, or phases of a course, or the entire course itself. The pretest is used to-

        (1) Determine the student's current proficiency, as it relates to the training presented, and if the student meets training prerequisites.

        (2) Allow a student to test out of part of, or a complete, course.

        (3) Prescribe follow-on training for self-paced instruction. Interactive courseware includes branching techniques, and pretests, that eliminate unneeded training, and present only training needed by the student.

    e. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter VI-7, and paragraph 4-19, below.

4-11. Designing in interactivity.

    a. In any type of IMI, interactivity refers to the activities performed by both the learner, and the computer. The quality of interaction depends on a number of variables, including the type of input required by the learner, how the learner response is analyzed, and how the computer responds back to the learner. Interactivity should sustain attention by keeping the student mentally active in the learning process.

    b. Cost considerations. Select the MOI and learning activities that provide the required level of interaction. Budget, timelines, authoring software capabilities, and the development team expertise and availability may create limits to the learning activities selected. The more complex the interactions, the more costly the IMI. Less costly interaction is achieved by thought-provoking questions; i.e., multiple choice, short answer, matching, or sequencing information. Having learners simulate equipment operations and troubleshooting procedures are more costly interactions, but probably one of the major reasons IMI was selected as the means for delivering instruction. Refer to table 2-3 for more details on development time equated to levels. For example, the cognitive and attitudinal aspects of troubleshooting can be effectively presented.

    c. Guidelines for self-contained interactions. To provide for, and increase, self contained interactivity-

        (1) Provide opportunities for interaction at least every three or four screens or, alternatively, about one per minute. Without interaction, the program is just a fancy electronic page-turner. Interactivity enhances and contributes to learning, by increasing how vivid the learning activity is to the learner.

        (2) Provide meaningful interactions. Mandatory interaction with the computer should not be superficial. If an action required is somewhat superficial, the learner will be distracted by it and become annoyed, thus hindering learning. The addition of superficial interruptions increases learning time, thus increases implementation cost.

        (3) Build in checks-on-learning, with feedback. Checks-on-learning can take the form of questions, or preferably, accomplishing some simulated performance, such as turning on a switch on a depicted item of equipment. The checks-on-learning must contribute to, and not interrupt, the continuity of the instruction. It provides the opportunity for immediate feedback to the learner concerning their learning performance, as a result of the response provided by the student.

Note: This feedback must be built into the courseware, in the context of the material being taught that elicited the learner response, and directly related to the provided response.

        (4) Provide for periodic reviews. Reviews provide reinforcement training; ensuring the learner is actively engaged in the learning process.

        (5) Ask for learner response after, but not immediately following, the related content. A gap between a post-response, and its related content, forces learners to mentally search for, and review, necessary information, rather than repeating what they were just taught. This searching and reviewing enhances retention, and ultimately, job performance.

        (6) Solicit application responses, rather than asking questions requiring recall responses. Application questions enhance attention and comprehension, and facilitate transfer of learning.

        (7) Vary frequency and complexity of required learner response, to increase learner's ability to think and derive solutions to complex problems in various situations and conditions. A learner's ability to think is a mental (cognitive) skill that can be enhanced by being exercised. This technique gradually increases the difficulty of the thinking exercise.

        (8) Use independent research to allow the learner to discover information through active exploration in the program, rather than presenting the material to be learned in a linear format. This MOI-

            (a) Provides practice on identifying and collecting materials, analyzing data, and developing solutions to problems and situations.

            (b) Adds variety to the presentation, challenges learners, and maintains their interest.

            (c) Provides practice on thinking and other analytical processes.

        (9) Ask students questions related to the content that has not been taught, but can be answered using previously learned knowledge. This adds variety, challenges students, maintains their interest, and may serve as a pretest (i.e., follow-on training may not have to be provided, depending on the quality of the student response).

        (10) Use rhetorical questions to get students to think about the content, stimulate their curiosity, and as a natural transition between frames. A rhetorical question invites students to mentally interact with the content, but does not require students to overtly provide an answer. Used as a transition aid, it can direct students' attention to what is coming up next.

        (11) Provide information in the program so the computer can evaluate student responses and take necessary, and appropriate, actions. The computer can only do what it is told to do; the student must be given the correct information, or guidance, for learning to occur.

    d. Other modes of interaction. Today, with new technology, there are many modes of interaction available. They can be self-contained, or interactive with other web sites, communications, collaboration, and distribution systems. Interactions can also be active, on-line, with multiple interactive users. Interactive multimedia instruction, limited to a self-contained independent mode, may not be sufficient, depending on the nature and complexity of the course content, and the characteristics of the target audience; i.e., motivation level, and background of experience. Some learners may require regular and sustained interaction, involving instructors and other learners.

    e. Army education and training is conducted, using taxpayer dollars, to meet Army training requirements. With limited resources and dollars to create and implement the education and training, our challenge is to design the most efficient, effective education/training possible with those dollars. Individualized, self-paced education/training is proven to be more efficient and effective than instructor-presented learning.

    f. Incorporating interactive communication and collaboration activities. Incorporate interactive communication and collaboration activities to enhance the IMI learning environment, and broaden the learning experience. Utilize various synchronous and asynchronous modes to accomplish these interactions. Although asynchronous and synchronous are different modalities, they can be mixed in a learning product. The interactions can be one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many. Consider these modes of interaction for incorporation into an IMI during the design of the project. Only use interactivity with an instructor, when the learner requests assistance, to provide feedback on learner-produced, instructor-evaluated assignments, and for motivation purposes.

        (1) Synchronous communication occurs when the interaction between two or more people takes place at (roughly) the same time. This term is derived from the Latin syn (same) and chronous (time), and may be referred to as real-time communication. It is when everyone is viewing the same thing, at the same time, and having the ability for two-way interactions. Distributed education, based primarily on a live audio/video presentation or conference, is synchronous because it constantly requires learners and instructors to be available at the same time. It is close to the traditional lecture and discussion. Other examples of synchronous interactions include:

            (a) Teletraining Network (TNET).

            (b) Satellite Education Network (SEN).

            (c) VTT.

            (d) Netmeeting/Netshow.

            (e) Software sharing.

            (f) Whiteboard techniques.

            (g) Chat (e.g., Internet Relay Chat (IRC)).

            (h) Call in help to instructor.

            (i) TV.

            (j) On-line lectures.

            (k) Chat rooms.

            (l) Voice-based teleconferencing.

            (m) Video conferencing.

            (n) Desktop Video Teletraining.

            (o) RealVideo broadcast.

            (p) RealAudio broadcast.

            (q) Netmeeting audio.

            (r) Internet phone.

            (s) Telephone.

        (2) Asynchronous communication occurs when people participate at different times. This is derived from the Latin a (not), syn (same) and chronous (time), and is the opposite of synchronous. Interactive Multimedia Instruction, by definition, is asynchronous, because it can take place anytime, anywhere, and at irregular intervals. Traditionally, it was intended for independent self-paced study, where all interactions were self-contained. Examples of other interactive techniques delivered asynchronously include:

            (a) Electronic mail (E-mail).

            (b) Bulletin boards.

            (c) List serve.

            (d) On-line conferencing.

            (e) RealAudio.

            (f) RealVideo.

            (g) CBI on the user's computer.

            (h) CBI over the Internet.

            (i) Videotape.

            (j) Voicemail.

    g. Combining IMI with other modes. Interactive Multimedia Instruction can be combined with substantial, rapid, asynchronous interactivity with other modes. Use computer and communications technologies to work with remote learning resources, including instructors and other learners, via the Internet, but without the requirement to be on-line at the same time. Structure a CD-ROM with asynchronous databases, on-line resources, utilities, and hot links to related material on the WWW. Occasional synchronous activities can also be used in conjunction with the IMI. Schedule and coordinate group or personal conferences, lab sessions, or proctored hands-on performance tests at a specified time and place. Synchronous education/training requires scheduling, if more than the learner and an instructor/SMEs are involved. The DL program will schedule all learning sessions requiring Army resources.

    h. Considerations when combining synchronous and asynchronous education/training include-

        (1) Establishing vehicles for conducting collaborative learning activities.

        (2) Incorporating the collaborative activity in the course map (mandatory training sequence).

        (3) Establishing completion requirements, and deadlines for prerequisite modules or lessons of the ICW, prior to participating in a collaborative activity.

        (4) The class manager ensuring collaborative learning activity is coordinated and scheduled.

        (5) Instructor/SMEs assigned to each learner, to monitor and answer learner questions on-line, or evaluate learner performance IAW a CMP.

        (6) Complicated scheduling, due to learners being located at different sites; but this will be managed by the learning management system.

        (7) Class managers creating/maintaining a mailing list for assigned learners.

        (8) Requirement for additional programming for integration into the IMI.

    i. Benefits gained from synchronous and asynchronous education/training include-

        (1) Seamless, immediate access to multiple information resources enhances self-directed learning.

        (2) Group social and educational support provided to the learner through conferencing.

        (3) Communication options enable learner to ask questions and; therefore, eliminate frustration and problems that could impede progress through a self-paced course.

        (4) Collaborative learning opportunities, to provide innovative approaches for learners to perform problem solving, brainstorming, and sharing ideas, views, and opinions, that will broaden their learning experience.

        (5) Providing opportunities for assigned instructor/SME to mentor the learner.

        (6) Providing capability to compile a list of frequently asked questions that indicates courseware areas with incomplete or unclear information; thus providing valuable evaluation feedback to revise and improve the material.

        (7) Enabling learners to request and receive assistance with problems on learner-produced products; i.e., demonstrate the products they created with the instructor, team, or peer groups.

    j. Types of interactions. Various types of interactions listed below can be added to the IMI, in an asynchronous or synchronous mode. Consider the use of these tools in the design of ICW-all will not be used at the same time, and those used are subject to all military regulations.

        (1) Conferencing. Synchronous conferencing is real-time interaction. It can be used for conversations, discussions, presentations, or meetings. Army systems used for this type of conferencing are the TNET and the SEN.

            (a) Teletraining Network provides near full-motion, two-way video and audio, graphics, and computer-based teletraining, and data transfer for courses, exercises, after-action reports, new equipment training, and simulations. Teletraining Network has round-the-clock communications capability, primarily over satellite links. Each TNET site can send and receive training from over 110 other TNET locations, and over 300 sites in other military and state networks, including all SEN sites. Teletraining Network also has outside the continental United States (OCONUS) connectivity to Europe, Hawaii, and the Sinai.

            (b) Satellite Education Network is a studio-based, one-way video network, with return audio to the instructor over phone lines. The SEN broadcasts a high-quality, full-motion digital signal over three channels, and has retained its ability to deliver analog broadcasts. Satellite Education Network's primary mission is to support logistics and acquisition courses taught by the Army.

            (c) Conferencing can also be a form of group discussion, which uses text messages stored on a computer as a communication medium. The conferences can be private conferences for students, or public conferences for displaying work. Systems used for this type of conferencing include, but are not limited to, Lotus Notes, FirstClass, and WebNotes.

            (d) Conferencing helps nurture the personal relationships between instructors and learners. It enables learners to give presentations and demonstrate projects, broadening the learning experience for all. It can be used for collaborative learning experiences. Although not appropriate for all courses, it can enhance the learning experiences of selected courses.

        (2) Collaboration. Any of the conferencing tools can be used for collaborative learning activities. This capability will be an integral part of the Army's DL program. In addition, various tools are available for software sharing. Courses often incorporate the use of various software packages needed to complete projects. Using these tools, the instructor can view student projects, and help resolve problems. Learners can also work together on team projects, or for collaborative learning purposes.

        (3) Help Desk. Learners can contact the appropriate help desk to obtain technical assistance on such items as LAN connections, acquiring courseware, and loading/operating the courseware.

        (4) Chat Tools.

            (a) Chatting is a form of interactive, on-line written communication. It allows logged-in users to have a typed, on-line, real-time conversation with others on a computer, by all users logging on a network. Chatting can take place in a chat room or on IRC. A chat room is a site on the WWW where any number of logged-in computer users can type in messages to each other (chat) in real time, creating an on-line conversation. The messages are instantaneously relayed to other members, and their messages are instantaneously relayed back. These messages usually appear on an area of the screen next to the user's nickname or handle. Most chat rooms have a particular topic. As a designer, consider a chat room as an extension of the classroom, and an alternative that allows learners to share personal experiences that are beneficial, both in a self-paced and group setting. Aside from training purposes, do NOT use a chat room for personal use.

            (b) Internet Relay Chat is a chat system that enables people connected anywhere on the Internet to join in live discussions. To join an IRC discussion, an IRC client and Internet access is needed. The IRC client is a program that runs on a computer, and sends and receives messages to and from an IRC server. The IRC server, in turn, is responsible for making sure that all messages are broadcast to everyone participating in a discussion. There can be many discussions going on at once; each one is assigned a unique channel.

            (c) Chats are not suited for a large number of people. Before using synchronous chat, it is important to remind users that a conversation is taking place. Having fifty people talk at once in a room makes it impossible to follow the conversation; the same is true in a chat room. Chats can be ordered only with the voluntary compliance of the participants themselves. Interruptions, off-topic remarks, and general disorder are disruptive in a classroom or meeting, and will also be disruptive in an on-line setting.

        (5) Electronic Mail. E-mail is a way of automatically sending addressed messages, from one computer user to another, through a computer network and/or via modems over telephone lines. The message is normally delivered to the recipient's computer in a couple of minutes. The learner can read the messages using a provided E-mail program. All soldiers will have an Army Knowledge On-Line E-mail address that will follow them from duty station to duty station. Learners will use E-mail as a primary communication means for conversations with assigned instructor/SME, and in collaborative learning activities.

        (6) Listserv. Listserv(s) allow subscription to a mailing list that distributes E-mails to the members on a particular subject. No human intervention is needed. An automatic mailing list server processes E-mail requests for addition to, or deletion from, mailing lists. Some listservs provide other facilities, such as retrieving files from archives and database searches. Reference materials are published on web servers, and learners can access the materials at their leisure, or asynchronously. Mailing lists and bulletin board systems are commonly used to make timely course-related announcements, and as a medium to facilitate asynchronous group discussions, and administer technical forums.

        (7) Web Conference Boards. Web Conference Boards provide forums for users to post messages and participate in live interactive chat sessions.

        (8) Newsgroups. A newsgroup is an on-line discussion group of a specific topic. To view and post messages to a newsgroup, a newsreader is needed. A newsreader is a client application. Both Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator come with newsreaders. Freeware, shareware, and commercial, stand-alone newsreaders are available.

    k. Considerations for incorporation into courseware. Consider the following issues before deciding to combine IMI with other modes:

        (1) Establish schedules and vehicles for collaborative activities.

        (2) Completion requirements and deadlines have to be established for certain modules or lessons of the IMI, prior to participating in a collaborative activity.

        (3) Coordination may be required with various communication systems.

        (4) Scheduling of instructor's time, to monitor and answer student questions online, or to post frequently asked questions and answers to a bulletin board.

        (5) Scheduling may be complicated, due to student being located in different time zones.

        (6) Mailing lists will have to be created and revised for different registration periods.

        (7) Additional costs may be incurred for communications systems and devices.

        (8) Additional programming may be required for integration into the IMI.

l. Benefits of courseware. Benefits to be gained from combining IMI with other modes:

        (1) Seamless, immediate access to multiple information resources enhances self-directed learning, and "just-in-time" learning.

        (2) Conferencing provides group, social, and educational support to the student.

        (3) Communication options enable student to ask questions, and therefore, eliminate frustration and problems that could impede their progress through a self-contained course.

        (4) Collaboration provides opportunities for instructors to mentor student, and students to mentor each other.

        (5) Collaboration provides opportunities for students to do problem solving, brainstorming, and sharing ideas, views, and opinions that will broaden their learning experience.

        (6) Frequently asked questions will indicate areas with incomplete or unclear information, thus providing valuable feedback to revise and improve the IMI.

        (7) Sharing software will enable students to request and receive assistance with problems on projects in various software packages. They can also demonstrate the applications they created to the instructor or the group.

4-12. Designing in branching.

    a. Branching is central to the control of education/training, based on the learner's current capability to perform the courseware learning objective, ability to learn the presented materials, the mandatory training sequence, and training completion requirements.

    b. Foundation. Branching is a primary characteristic of programmed learning. Programmed learning theory was put forward in the mid-1920s, and clarified in the late 1950s. Programmed learning includes presenting material in small steps, acquiring and reinforcing overt learner responses, providing immediate feedback, and self-pacing. Branching programmed learning allows the learner to skip education/training material that the learner has mastered, or can perform. Branching is complex, but combined with the self-paced characteristic of programmed learning and the capabilities of computers, provides the most efficient and effective means for presenting education/training.

    c. Diagrams. Programmed learning can be presented using linear, modified linear, or branching programs. Diagrams are produced to show the learning paths.

        (1) Linear program. In a linear program, all learners are presented, and learn the material, in the same sequence. This is a typical lock-step approach, followed in traditional instructor-led instruction. Figure 4-1 shows a linear program when diagrammed.

 

Figure 4-1. Linear program

        (2) Modified linear program. This approach allows the learner to skip certain lessons, or portions of a lesson, or provides for answers to problems/questions found in following lessons. It allows the learner to think through the problems presented and, reach an answer on his/her own, thus enhancing learning transfer. An example is provided in figure 4-2.

Figure 4-2. Example of a modified linear program

    d. Branching program. This approach uses the responses to presented problems, situations, and questions to guide the learner through the learning process. The learner skips material that he/she already knows (or can do modified linear branching) and is guided to remedial learning on areas that need to be repeated, expanded, or reinforced. The computer makes it possible to present complex branching learning in the CBI programs. In essence, the CBI program is holding a dialog with the learner-assessing learner responses, providing the appropriate feedback, and directing the learner to the appropriate learning activity. The designer must incorporate the knowledge of master SMEs (performers) to ensure the completeness of the courseware and minimize actual instructor/SME involvement. The designer must-

        (1) Provide a description of each screen's branching options, and identify the precise destination for every possible learner response. Maximizing student interactivity is paramount. Present information to be learned in small bits.

        (2) Identify and detail all interactions that will happen during a CBI/simulation. Creating CBI and simulations are two of the major activities that require detailed descriptions of what happens with each interaction from the learner.

        (3) Describe the interaction on each screen with enough detail that a programmer (or another developer) can understand what is needed.

    e. Branching Flow. An example of a complex branching diagram is shown in figure 4-3.

    f. Branching factors. When designing the courseware, there are a number of branching factors to include:

        (1) Consider primary branching factors, which include-

            (a) What must be learned before some other material or required performance can be learned (mandatory training sequence).

            (b) What the student already knows and can perform (determined with pretests).

            (c) The requirement to ensure the student can actually perform to the required standard.

        (2) Establish-

            (a) Where to branch from.

            (b) Where to branch to.

            (c) Content and complexity of each branch.

            (d) Reinforcement requirements.

            (e) Feedback provided to the learner concerning the response that triggered the branching.

A learner response to a simulated performance, a question, results of part of a test, or results of a complete test, can be the control for branching.

Figure 4-3. Branching flowchart

4-13. Designing in controls.

    a. Interactive courseware must have controls built in, so that during implementation, the learner is guided through the mandatory learning activities, based on the student's progress and capabilities, mandatory training sequence, and training completion criteria established in the Student Evaluation Plan. The controls must ensure that a determination can be made that the learner has successfully accomplished the learning objective. These controls may be transparent to the learner, or can be readily selected by the learner. Use the TRADOC navigation objects so learners will not have to learn new navigation tools as they go from lesson-to-lesson, module-to-module, or course-to-course.

    b. Influencing factors. The following factors may influence decisions regarding the amount of learner control designed into the courseware:

        (1) Knowledge of the target audience.

        (2) Learning skills of the learner.

        (3) Learner motivation.

        (4) Content complexity, effect of inadequate performance, and requirement for hands-on-training.

        (5) Available resources, to include time, money, and people, to develop and implement the ICW.

4-14. Providing feedback.

    a. Feedback is information and guidance provided to the learner, based on the displayed performance or response to questions. Quality content feedback is critical to learning; it should be provided in a positive light. Incorporate feedback in the courseware to help students learn and enhance retention by-

        (1) Affirming student performance/response.

        (2) Addressing and correcting any possible student misconceptions and misunderstanding.

        (3) Addressing student's demonstrated lack of required skills or knowledge.

        (4) Building confidence. (Be careful not to encourage incorrect responses. Cynical or negative feedback will discourage a student, and should not be used.)

        (5) Providing information or delayed feedback, depending on the desired effect. Feedback, however, is to be prompt.

        (6) Providing information concerning the accuracy of their response.

        (7) Explaining exactly why a specific response is correct or incorrect.

    b. Feedback content. Feedback must relate directly to the action or response required of the student. It must include-

        (1) Knowledge of results (correct or incorrect).

        (2) A specific explanation as to why the selected response is correct or incorrect. All responses will not be especially good, or could be improved, but are either correct or incorrect.

        (3) Branching to the next training or remedial session (optional or forced).

    c. Guidelines. Apply the following guidelines when incorporating feedback into the design:

        (1) Provide feedback on the same screen with the question or learner action and student response (except when branching is direct result of the response). This provides visual and audio linkage between the required action or response, and the actual response, and reduces computer memory load.

        (2) Time the feedback appropriately to achieve the desired result. Relating feedback to the response, the learner's reason for the response, the correct response, and the reason as to why the response is correct or incorrect, enhances learning. Enhance learning transfer by delayed feedback to provide time for the learner to reach the desired conclusion, or determine the answer. Provide immediate feedback for safety items. Note: Positive feedback enhances learning.

        (3) Provide frequent feedback. Learning is more rapid when given frequent feedback.

        (4) Provide feedback to explain why a provided response is correct or incorrect. Ensure the learner knows why the provided response is correct or incorrect.

        (5) Tailor the feedback to each learner's response. Address a specific misconception a student may have by selecting a particular incorrect response. Branch to new or remedial training depending on correctness of the response.

        (6) Provide positive feedback. This not only builds learner's self-esteem and confidence, but also minimizes discouragement from incorrect responses, and provides motivation to learn.       

        (7) For incorrect responses, give the learner a hint, and ask them to try again. This helps the learner recall relevant information to answer the question, or provide the correct response (and thus be successful), and reduces the possibility of the learner repeating the failure, and increasing their frustration.

        (8) Embed instructional feedback in simulations to explain why the simulated world reacted in a certain way to learner actions, or to provide a hint as to what action the learner should take. Guide the student through the simulation-provide a little help to ensure success, while still allowing the learner to think through the problem or situation, thus enhancing learning, and the transfer of learning.

        (9) Phase out feedback in a simulation/CBI. Provide the learner time to practice performance, without guidance to facilitate transfer of learning.

        (10) Have the computer acknowledge learner input as quickly as possible. The cue can be a "beep," a color change, removal of untouched objects, a check mark, or any unobtrusive response. This informs the learner that the computer has received the input; thus decreasing learner impatience and concern over whether the computer is, or is not, working.

        (11) Provide intermediate feedback (e.g., message box) when the wait to get a response from the computer is longer than will be comfortable for the learner, to prevent them from wondering if they are supposed to do something, or wait for something to occur on the screen.

        (12) Provide the learner a printout of their formal test results, if possible. Note: Distributed learning facilities have limited printing capability. In case the official record is lost, misplaced, or destroyed, the learner will have a hard copy of their performance.

4-15. Presentation of materials. For effective presentation of instructional materials, consider such factors as screen layout, presentation timing, and continuity.

    a. Screen layout. When developing the screen layout, ensure the presentation of information and visual elements on the screen are pleasing, located where they are expected to be, and provides for smooth eye flow from screen to screen; keeping the learner oriented in the course.

        (1) Once developed, the screen layout can become a template that is used repeatedly throughout the courseware. Use of templates greatly accelerates course development time, ensures established conventions are followed, and makes courseware user friendly. Do not let a template prevent design of efficient and effective education/training.

        (2) Position information on a screen as follows:

            (a) Present key information in prominent areas (e.g., away from the border).

            (b) Present information that changes from display to display (the body of the instruction) off to one side of the centerline of the screen.

            (c) Present recurrent information (e.g., menu bars) in constant locations.

            (d) Present navigation buttons near the borders of the screen; i.e., bottom, top, or to one side. Always have the buttons in the same location.

            (e) Place certain information in constant locations. This includes, but is not limited to, forward and back buttons, help button, course map, etc.

            (f) Provide consistent layout for the same types of screens within a given course.

            (g) Use slightly different screens for different purposes; i.e., titles, information, practical exercises, summaries, and tests to enhance learner understanding and ease in program operation.

    b. Presentation timing. Presentation timing is the provision of information, when needed, at a pace conducive to learning. The learner or program-depending on the material presented-may control presentation pace.

        (1) Although ICW is usually self-paced, and allows the learner to choose when to access information and how long to work on the activities, the course must have established deadlines for completion of total course, specific modules, and activities.

        (2) The pace of the lesson conveys the urgency of performing a task. It evokes the emotion and motivation appropriate for the content and objective. Use the knowledge of the target population, typical job setting, and the objectives, to determine lesson pace.

    c. Continuity guidelines. Follow these continuity guidelines when developing the ICW:

        (1) Continuity of the presentation can also be maintained by applying consistency in the presentation of the information. It includes many diverse items, but is not limited to-

            (a) Standardization of controls.

            (b) Audio use.

            (c) Color use.

            (d) Cue use.

            (e) Screen placement.

            (f) Special effects use.

        (2) Ensure the actions, transitions, and events following the training sequence are consistent with presentation continuity.

        (3) Ensure standardization of controls to include:

            (a) Audio use.

            (b) Color use.

            (c) Cue use.

            (d) Screen placement.

            (e) Special effect(s) use.

            (f) Visual flow.

            (g) Image placement.

    d. Consistency guidelines. When developing the ICW, be consistent in-

        (1) Applying selected and approved conventions for menus, titles, text fonts, file names, and abbreviations.

        (2) Application of established ICW technical standards.

        (3) Presenting the required learning steps/activities.

        (4) Using written, visual, and aural techniques.

4-16. Interactive courseware structuring and sequencing.

    a. The courseware structure organizes the learning, and lays out the sections (phases, modules, lessons, etc.) of a course. Systematically design the course structure so that it facilitates learning of the required content. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter VI-6.

        (1) Course structure is portrayed in a training outline that-

            (a) Is a working document, allowing flexibility to modify training materials or products.

            (b) Shows how all learning objectives will be presented, and learner performance evaluated.

            (c) Provides mandatory training sequence; i.e., a logical order for presenting the lessons, learning objectives, and learning steps/activities. Sequencing is the ordering of courses, phases, modules, lessons (TLO), ELO, and learning steps/activities to optimize learning. It is reflected in the course map. (The course map may be depicted at any level of detail, from course level to learning activity/step, as needed to show learning flow.) The mandatory training sequence only mandates a sequence when there is a mandatory prerequisite for learning to occur. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, paragraph VI-6-7.

        (2) When complete, the training structure and sequence are detailed in a course map-a graphic portrayal of a course's presentation. Identify acceptable alternate sequences in the course map.

    b. Procedure. Follow the steps below to review and modify the training sequence and structure for the program:

        (1) Review the sequence of training from the course design.

        (2) Identify the hierarchical relationship between a task, task performance steps, skills, and knowledge. This establishes the sequence that most resembles actual task performance. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, paragraph VI-2-3h.

        (3) Identify identical skills and knowledge required for the performance of different tasks and performance steps. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, paragraph VI-2-10.

        (4) Review/revise the learning objectives.

        (5) Revise/create the training structure and sequence.

        (6) Revise/create the detailed course map.

    c. Course map. A course map is a framework that visually represents the scope, sequence, and organization of the course, so that learners, developers, and other users understand it (see fig 4-4). Think of a course map as a "visual table of contents." A course map-

        (1) Provides a "visual cue" of the course/courseware content.

        (2) Depicts the learning sequence and dependencies if one phase, module, lesson, or learning step/activity must be learned or completed prior to another (mandatory training sequence).

        (3) Can be used to branch the learner directly to the part of the courseware selected.

        (4) Tracks a learner's progress through the course, indicating parts started, completed, and remaining.

        (5) Provides the foundation for course/courseware development.

        (6) Helps organize work for course development. Development team members can estimate the amount of work required, and how it fits into the entire course.

    d. Some guidelines for developing a detailed course map are-

        (1) Keep it simple. It must communicate to a person without ICW design experience.

        (2) Do not show individual screens on the flowchart.

Figure 4-4. Course map

        (3) Represent courseware segments (learning step/activity) by a single entry.

        (4) Show the detail on lesson and learning step/activity branching, to depict the information flow and the learning path, via the use of arrows or lines.

        (5) Do not indicate specific menus, feedback, remediation, or help screens, but provide an example of how they will typically be handled.

        (6) Indicate what features will always be available for learners to use; i.e., helps and glossaries.

        (7) Provide a top-level organizer to guide the development of storyboards.

        (8) To save time and effort, use a commercial flowcharting software program, such as Flowchart 4 or Visio-Standard, to build the flow chart. These tools allow a user to build a flowchart very quickly by creating image files and flowcharting symbols, instead of using the more typical line-draw function.

        (9) Storyboards should be created for each item included in the course map. See chapter 6 for storyboard development.

    e. Figures 4-5 and 4-6 are examples of typical ICW flowcharts.

Figure 4-5. Flowchart 1

Figure 4-6. Flowchart 2

 

4-17. Establish training content.

    a. Lesson content is the material to be presented to the student. This content is extracted directly from the task performance specifications identified during task analysis. The task-skill/knowledge matrix constructed during task analysis shows the hierarchical relationship between a task, task performance steps, skills, and knowledge. Additionally, this matrix identifies identical skills and knowledge required for the performance of different tasks and performance steps. Use this matrix information to help establish the training structure and sequence.

    b. The content of material, to be included in a training program, can be categorized as a particular type of information. The type of material affects how the material should be trained, and the practice required for learning to occur. If this process is used, categorize the task analysis information to be trained.

4-18. Establish instructional treatment and practice requirements.

    a. Introduction. There are a number of different theories of learning. Additionally, there are many approaches to applying these theories to create efficient, effective courseware. Different approaches to designing courses and courseware are included for consideration. Basically, there is not "one right way" to design a course. It is important, however, to consistently apply whatever approach chosen through the entire course.

    b. Importance. The most important requirement to remember is to take the time to design efficient, effective, valid ICW, which provides the learner with an opportunity to perform tasks to an established standard. Create this ICW in the shortest amount of time possible, with the minimum use of available resources. The design must provide progressive, sequential education/training, integrated across the entire course.

    c. Compliance. While compliance with the specific course/courseware design requirements specified in TRADOC Reg 350-70 is required, the Army allows the designer flexibility in selecting and applying the theory and design approach chosen to implement. The approach included in DoD MIL-PRF 29612B is included.

    d. Learning Theory. Each learning objective may train more than one skill or knowledge. Associate learning objectives with different levels of learning (e.g., fact learning, rule learning) by further classifying each of the learning types, as determined by the active verb associated with each level of learning.

    e. Learning Objective Category. The learning objective category and respective level of learning affects the design of lessons in terms of the level of processing, instructional treatment, and practice requirements to master the objective. Use Decision Aid 1, Learning Types and Levels of Learning (see app K) to assist in making these decisions. Decision Aid 2, Instructional Treatment and Practice Requirements (app K), is also available for use.

4-19. Interactive courseware component use guidance. This paragraph presents guidance concerning how to use text, visuals, audio, and special effects when developing the storyboards, screen layouts, and templates. This provides for efficient and effective training, and maintains a continuity of presentation. The most important consideration in display design is clarity of communication. Using more senses allows a greater retention of material learned.

    a. Use of Text.

        (1) Text is a primary way of presenting information to learners. Text can include written dialog and information on content to be learned; provide directions to follow; may serve to highlight certain information; or just provide a label on some object displayed on the screen. Note: Visual techniques cannot compensate for poorly written text. Improving the text part of visual displays saves money, and adds value to products, without extra cost. On-line displays are not at all like paper pages. It is usually more difficult to read text on-line than in hard copy. Apply the following guidelines when storyboarding text elements in the ICW. Use text when-

            (a) Information needs to be skimmed or studied.

            (b) The learners have high reading levels, and are highly motivated.

            (c) Presenting technical information in combination with graphics.

        (2) Use text in these situations because audio and video have a fixed time to play, and do not lend themselves to skimming. Information presented using more than one channel is more readily understood. Present technical information in combination with graphics. Follow these principles-

            (a) Well-structured text enhances readability, increases understanding, and aids recall of information. Structure text by-

    • Starting paragraphs with the main idea, and follow with topically related subordinate text.
    • Keeping the first sentence short.
    • Introducing ideas with information that the learner already knows.
    • Using complete words; avoid contractions.
    • Putting cautions, warnings, environmental protection factors, or exceptions to some prescribed action before the instructions.

            (b) It is more difficult and takes longer to read text on a screen than in print. Limit amount of text on screen by-

    • Breaking text into discrete paragraphs and units.
    • Double-spacing text, and color-coding to highlight words and sentences that require special attention.
    • Keeping the text short and simple. If the message is too long, break it into chunks separated by instructional activities (e.g., quizzes, reviews, and hands-on exercises).
    • Using paging (not scrolling) when presenting large amounts of text.

        (3) The learner must be able to focus on learning, and not have to expend time and effort searching for the information being presented. Format content by-

            (a) Converting sentences containing serial items to lists.

            (b) Using bullet character to list information. Begin each item with a capital letter.

            (c) Presenting text in groups no longer than six lines, to make it more legible.

            (d) Separating paragraphs by a blank line; indents are optional.

            (e) Keeping displays predictable and regular, to increase learner's retention.

            (f) Using standard alphabetic characters. Use only those symbols that are understood by the learner.

            (g) Using the lowest, reasonable standard TrueType Microsoft Windows fonts, such as Arial, Times New Roman, and Wingdings.

            (h) Using headings as content summarizers and navigation aids.

            (i) Organizing complex information into tables, to help learners integrate program content.

            (j) Reserving uppercase letters for acronyms and proper English uses.

            (k) Left justify regular text. Note: Headings and titles can be centered, or flush left or right.

        (4) Break words without the use of hyphenations, except for compound words.

        (5) Be consistent in the use of text throughout the courseware.

        (6) Always leave ample space around text. This is especially important when displayed within boxes or text fields. Do NOT crowd text into spaces.

        (7) Place primary material at the upper left corner of the screen, where the eye goes first. In Western cultures, learners tend to read from left to right, top to bottom.

        (8) Use active voice. Active voice connotes directness and strength, characteristics that promote clarity.

        (9) Do not use words with ambiguous meanings. Learners may perceive words differently than what was intended. Mean what you say; say what you mean.

        (10) When establishing text and text background colors-

            (a) Use yellow or white for text on dark colored backgrounds.

            (b) Ensure enough contrast between the text color and background color.

            (c) For extensive text fields, use black or dark blue serif (Times New Roman) text on white, beige, light blue or pale colored backgrounds-it makes it easier for the learner to read the textual information.

        (11) Attention-getting effects help focus the student's attention on key information. Use these effects with care by-

            (a) Limiting highlighting or boldface to 10 percent of the display.

            (b) Not using underlining.

            (c) Using reverse video or blinking with extreme discretion.

            (d) Using no more than one attention-getting technique on a single screen.

Note: Be consistent throughout the courseware in the use of textual cues and messages. Over-saturation reduces the effectiveness of these techniques.

        (12) Provide answers to the questions "How come?" and "So what?" to tell the learners why the information being presented is important and give them the proper context. This gives the learners a more complete understanding of the material being taught.

    b. Use of Visuals.

        (1) The saying "a picture is worth a thousand words" is true. Good visual displays enhance the effectiveness of the training program, hence learning. Research has shown that most of what is learned is through vision. This paragraph provides general guidance in the use of visuals in the courseware to provide for efficient and effective training. Visuals can make a link to the real world, and enhance learning transfer. The visual design elements consist of any video, text, graphics (photographs, artwork, line drawings, etc.), and animation that are displayed on the screen. Visual elements can be used alone, in combination, or as overlays on still or motion video. Visuals should have realistic color, be clear and interesting, and most importantly, illustrate the point to be learned. The design of the screen display is a critical factor in the interface between the learner and the program. Each of these will be covered in a subparagraph. Thoughtful use of video, text, graphics, and animation can-

            (a) Add insight and understanding to the relationship between learning concepts and abstracts.

            (b) Illustrate the learning processes.

            (c) Show how an object looks, and its relationship to other objects.

            (d) Let the learner know what is expected.

            (e) Improve learner performance by maintaining the interest of the learner, while reducing the chances of confusion, eyestrain, and fatigue.

            (f) Demonstrate how something actually works.

            (g) Present abstract concepts and ideas.

            (h) Direct audience attention to essential information, by highlighting the relevant, and omitting the irrelevant.

        (2) Images used must not only support the premise of the lesson, but also appeal to the user. Only use visuals that pertain to the subject, enhance learning, or communicate the required concept. Do not use images as space fillers. Showy graphics, animation, and video make the training program impressive and exciting, but without substance behind the "glitz," it is not effective courseware. The instructional design needs to use the capabilities of the technology to enhance training. Well thought-out use of graphics, carried throughout the instruction, is what makes the training program effective. Use the following general guidelines and rationale for incorporating visual elements (video, text, graphics, and animation) in the training program.

            (a) Avoid biases or stereotypes in all visuals (gender, ethnic groups, etc.). It is insulting to students, illegal, and distracts from learning.

            (b) Do not jam a screen with too much information at any one point. Cluttered screens reduce learning efficiency and effectiveness, and a jammed screen increases learning time and errors.

            (c) Present large amounts of information in small "chunks" to-

    • Enhance learning, by making it easier for the learner to comprehend the material.
    • Avoid overwhelming or intimidating the learner with a large amount of information.
    • Facilitate learner recall of provided material, when required.
    • Reduce computer memory load, thus reducing the implementation problem caused by computers with limited random access memory (RAM).
    • Display chunks one at a time. Have each main bullet point appear independently of others, or appear progressively, one after another; and dim, or change color of bullets or objects, when adding a new element. This will focus learner attention on teaching points, control the flow and pace of information, add interest to the presentation, and draw attention to new information.

            (d) Use windows to group or separate certain information from the rest of the display.

    • Focus learner attention on the pertinent material.
    • Reduce the density of display on the screen by superimposing one display on top of another.
    • Consistency of use establishes learner expectancy that certain data will always appear in a certain format and location, thus increasing learning efficiency.

            (e) Present information graphically and spatially (e.g., in a diagram or a flowchart).

    • Makes it easier for the learner to visualize the relationships among content (concepts, structures, and information flow) and/or the overall program structure to increase comprehension and memory.
    • Makes it easier to display and follow a learner's path (to-be and completed) through the training program.

            (f) Use visuals to-

    • Shrink or expand the time an action occurs (e.g., show the impact of a bullet).
    • Reduce or magnify the subject (e.g., shows crystal growth through a microscope).
    • Provide the capability to show material that, in real life ,cannot be examined or studied in detail.

            (g) Establish a frame of reference. This keeps learners oriented as to where they are, how they got there, what they can do, where they can go, and how they can get there, thus giving them a sense of control. It also allows learners to concentrate on the program content, rather than the navigation mechanism. Keep learners oriented by-

    • Placing certain information in constant locations.
    • Providing consistent layout for the same types of screens.
    • Using slightly different screens for different purposes; i.e., titles, information, and tests.
    • Maintaining a constant perspective in a series of visuals. If a change of perspective is necessary, cue learners to the change.
    • Providing cues by letter sizes, colors, and shapes.
    • Providing sign-posting information about a learner's current and past locations, what lies ahead, and how to get there; all available for reference, without moving from the current screen.
    • Using the normal eye approach by showing a long shot, before zooming in to show the details.

            (h) Make information available, upon request of a learner, in a compact, easy-to-understand, pictorial format. This allows learners to concentrate on the program content, rather than locating required information. Aid learner access to information by using icons and buttons as follows:

    • Use the TRADOC Navigation Objects link.
    • Use icons designed to communicate quickly and clearly a set of terms, meanings, or functions, with the minimum use of words.
    • Icons work best for concrete concepts that can be represented pictorially in miniature.
    • Buttons must be intuitive to the user as to how they function, or what action will happen when they are activated.
    • Buttons and icons must be accessible without being the focus of the users visual attention.

            (i) Consistency, in information positioning, allows the learner to concentrate on learning content, rather than searching for the information. The learner learns these positions and expects the information to be there. Position information on a screen in such a way as to:

    • Present key information in prominent areas (e.g., away from the border).
    • Present information that changes from display to display (the body of the instruction) off to one side of the centerline of the screen.
    • Present recurring information (e.g., menu bars) in constant locations.
    • Present navigation buttons near the borders of the screen; i.e., bottom, top, or to one side. Always have the buttons in the same location.

            (j) To increases training efficiency, differentiate important information and focus (attract/direct) learner attention on that information, by using the following cues:

    • Arrows, labels, and audio.
    • Display density, negative space.
    • Separation of information into distinct objects.
    • Windows.
    • Color and shape.
    • Highlighting and bordering.
    • Mixed type colors, bold text, and font style.

Note: Blinking. (Use minimally-it can be very distracting.) Be consistent throughout the program.

            (k) Over-saturation, or use of cues, reduces their effectiveness by distracting learner attention. Closing cues provide a sense of fulfillment, and keep learners oriented. When using visual cues:

    • Avoid using too many cues at one time.
    • Reserve blinking for critical situations requiring immediate learner attention or action.
    • Make borders and lines distinct from the object enclosed.
    • Highlight by either brightening the area of interest, or dimming the background.
    • Limit highlighting and text color changes to no more than 10 percent of the display, for effectiveness.
    • Provide cues to students at the end of an instructional unit.

Note: Cues may not be appropriate when the learners are in a browsing mode, or when they have total control over the instructional sequence.

            (l) Proper use of colors helps to focus learner attention to relevant instructional content. Inappropriate color combinations distract from learning, and too many colors on a display reduce effectiveness and aesthetic quality. When using color:

    • Limit color palette per screen to about six colors.
    • Avoid use of complimentary color pairs, such as blue/orange, red/green, and violet/yellow.

            (m) Visual balance and symmetry makes it easy for learners to know their location at all times. Proper visual balance minimizes subliminal feelings of unease in the student. Provide for visual balance by-

    • Balancing a text mass with a diagram, video image, or graphic, to create asymmetric formats and screen layout.
    • Providing generous white space to separate blocks of information.

            (n) When simulating equipment, project the equipment as realistic as possible, thereby increasing transfer of learning. Extraneous information on the screen distracts from the training. It is very easy to over-clutter the screen when simulating equipment.

    • Use colors as they appear on the real system.
    • To add information, questions, or feedback on a simulated item, use different color text in boxes and windows. Boxes and windows draw the learner's attention to what needs to be learned.
    • Select two locations for boxes-one for standard placement, and the other for the instances when the box must be moved.
    • Headings may not be appropriate for full-screen simulations.

        (3) Still Graphics. Still graphics provide the capability to visually present information. Still graphics include any graphic representation of a subject that is not moving. It includes, but is not limited to, illustrations, line drawings, diagrams, art drawings, or photographs. Photographs usually present subjects realistically. Acquire professional quality graphics that make the required teaching point. For technical information on graphics, refer to change to IMI Implementing Instructions, paragraph 4. For more information on preparing computer graphics, refer to paragraph 13, below. Apply the following guidelines when creating and incorporating still visuals into the ICW.

            (a) Use still graphics when graphics will change, when all or part of the visual will be used many times, or with only slight modifications. Keep the courseware development costs down-graphics are time consuming, and relatively expensive to produce or revise.

            (b) Always use stills when motion is not required. Still graphics are easier to change and manipulate than animation or video. Animation and video use more computer memory and storage space, and are slow to download from the WWW.

            (c) Search existing supporting databases to acquire existing still graphics; e.g., critical task references, field manuals, or technical manuals. Still graphics are used to lower courseware development costs. The learner sees and/or uses material used on the job.

            (d) Scanning graphics lowers courseware development costs. Scanned images are readily available, inexpensive, and can be scanned-in by any development team member. Photographs should be scanned at a resolution that effectively displays on a student workstation. Save images as .JPG files. Scan the graphic into the computer when a photograph or illustration portrays what is wanted, or no modification is required to the illustration. Note: Always comply with copyright and other appropriate laws and regulations.

            (e) Original still graphics depict exactly what is needed to make the teaching point. It is often more time consuming to modify a scanned image, than for an experienced graphic artist to render original art. When no illustration or photograph exists to portray what is needed, a photograph cannot be easily taken, or existing visual requires significant modification, have an original still graphic produced.

            (f) Use step stills (a series of still photographs viewed in a sequence, and studied individually) to clarify critical steps. This allows the learner to proceed at their own speed, and gives the learner the ability to review actions, or part of action.

            (g) Design ICW to color pallets that were established to a standard. This saves storage requirements by minimizing graphic file sizes.

            (h) Use still drawings, or art work, when the subject cannot be photographed. Clearly illustrate the teaching point.

        (4) Video.

            (a) Video is one of the visual elements that may be a part of the ICW. It is often overused. The use of video should be kept to the absolute minimum necessary to train the material.

    • Only use video when necessary to show motion. Keep video produced for the courseware short (seconds rather than minutes). A high level of detail is necessary in the script and storyboard, to ensure that the video producer has sufficient information to provide what is needed.
    • Before producing new video, review existing AV resources to determine if an existing video can be repurposed, by editing into short segments, and digitizing for use in the IMI development. See appendix B, paragraph B-2, for more information on editing and digitizing video.
    • There are technical and visual display aspects (image placement, lighting, continuity, tonal quality, technical accuracy) that must be accounted for in the design of video. A discussion of visual display aspects follows.

            (b) Video is one of the visual elements that make up a visual display. Video is often a major element of IMI. A high level of detail is necessary in the storyboard, to ensure that the video producer has sufficient information to get an accurate video shot. The technical aspects of digital video are found in appendix B, paragraph B-4. Videotapes, currently produced, are moving more toward digital video. However, if video is being produced for IMI, keep it short (seconds rather than minutes). The storyboarding and production of the video is the same, but digital video that will be used in small chunks requires less post-production. See paragraph 14 for more information on production of video. Use of digital cameras, especially for still frames, is increasing, and saves conversion of analog to digital format.

            (c) Apply the following guidelines when creating video:

    • Use of a video ensures appropriate information is provided, and maintains learner focus on what is to be learned. Use video to demonstrate (show and tell); familiarize a learner with a facility/event/operation walk-through with an on or off-screen narrator; dramatize an event, or to show the action of an operation; or set the stage in a simulation. Note: Lecture should not be used except possibly as a short motivator, or to disseminate new information. Lecture is an MOI of last resort.
    • Use motion video to represent reality, and help the learner achieve a high degree of transfer, from training to on-the-job performance. Note: If using for web-based training, consider delivery via a combination of CD-ROM and Internet. Use video only when motion is needed to clearly depict the point, provide for realism; simulate motion; present visual cues from body language, expressions, and/or muscle movement; show accompanying audio and verbal cues; present complex animation needed to store in a digital video format; or add motivational value to training.
    • Use digital video, if small portions of video are needed, to minimize storage requirements. Note: Presently, digital video requires a large amount of storage space, and multimedia personal computers with video accelerator cards.
    • Design a visual message appropriate to the content, to prevent or minimize confusion caused by presenting unrelated or clashing information, or a visual that is inappropriate. Use audio and video to reinforce each other. Never present two unrelated, or clashing, pieces of information. Make sure that each visual ties in directly to the accompanying audio.
    • Keep video sequences short. Video communicates a lot of information in a short time, provides more opportunities for interactions, helps keep learners from becoming overloaded, and helps maintain interest. Motion video takes up a lot of storage space, and requires larger bandwidths. Compressed and streaming video technology usage reduces storage space requirements.
    • Show the same program content repeatedly, in either an identical format, or a different perspective; to draw attention to specific material, heighten interest, and enhance retention. What is repeated is remembered better. Note: Unnecessary repetition is boring and reflects either a lack of imagination, or a poor tradeoff of quality for lowered costs.
    • To impress the audience with the serious outcomes associated with unacceptable performance, provide a quick showing of future events, or consequences of unacceptable performance (e.g., disaster caused by human errors), prior to instruction. This will motivate the audience to adopt acceptable behaviors or practice.
    • Present a series of visuals quickly, prior to, or at the end of, instruction. Quick visual inserts, presented before instruction stimulate recall of prerequisites, serve as an advance organizer, direct attention to key information, and heighten interest. Quick visual inserts, presented after instruction, remind the audience of the key information (what is repeated is more important), and enhances retention (what is repeated is remembered better).

        (5) Animation.

            (a) Animation depicts the appearance of motion by rapidly showing a series of slightly offset still graphics of the same subject. Animation is usually thought of as cartoons, but animation is much more than that. Animation provides the capability to show abstract concepts or processes/activities that are unsafe, impractical, or impossible to photograph. Animation can portray the nearly impossible, such as internal nuclear reaction, and future events, such as space travel. This is an invaluable training tool. In the past, animation has been very costly to produce. Modern computer programs are reducing the cost, and ease animation development costs. A detailed design, in the form of a script or storyboard, is required to produce quality animation. For more technical information on animation, refer to appendix B, paragraph B-6. For more information on preparing computer graphics, refer to paragraph 13.

            (b) Use animation to illustrate an abstract concept or process, or show cause and effect. This ensures the learner is presented with the most appropriate visual, to effectively and efficiently depict the teaching material. Use exaggeration and humor appropriately to heighten student interest and facilitate recall. This increases motivation-people often remember exaggerated or humorous information better-but use cartoons and humor with caution. Use animation when motion is required, to clearly illustrate the teaching point, and-

    • When subject cannot be photographed.
    • Conditions or problems to be portrayed occur very infrequently.
    • Learner needs to control movement and/or placement of visual.
    • When it is unsafe, impractical, or impossible to produce a video illustrating the teaching point.
    • Demonstrate the critical teaching point, when video is not adequate.
    • To reduce irrelevant details, and highlight key information in a still graphic.
    • When a realistic presentation (i.e., video) may overwhelm the audience with too much detail.

        (6) Three-dimensional (3-D) Interactive. Three-dimensional interactive is a means of presenting interactive experiences over the web, using images, audio, and animation, within a

3-D environment. Use 3-D interactive, if the following applications are required-

            (a) The courseware must provide a high degree of realism, to help personnel learn their jobs, without causing damage to personnel or equipment.

            (b) The tasks to be trained are of such a nature and complexity that the courseware must incorporate interactive scenarios.

            (c) Training must be developed on an emerging system, and delivered prior to the fielding of new equipment.

            (d) It is impossible to capture an object or scene for an IMI presentation on videotape or film.

            (e) There is no other option for training except simulation, and the personnel being trained only get one chance to perform the task to 100 percent accuracy.

    c. Audio.

        (1) Audio is often a major element of ICW, and includes dialog, narration, music, sound effects, and audible cues. The courseware must appeal to both the eye and the ear, in order to derive the maximum benefit from communication to both senses. Do not use audio just because it is available. Use audio only when it will enhance training. For technical information on audio, refer to IMI Implementing Instructions, paragraph 5b. Narration and spoken dialog provides relevant information or directions to the learner. Music establishes the mood or atmosphere for what is to occur, and may also provide content for musician training.

        (2) Apply the following guidelines when including audio in the ICW:

            (a) Use audio for primary presentation of the program content to-

    • Explain details, suggest relationships, or supply any kind of information that cannot be adequately explained in the visual.
    • Require immediate learner response when the message is short, simple, does not use technical or unfamiliar terms, or when the visual screen is overloaded.
    • Communicate to nonreaders.
    • Follow directions at a distance from the ICW (significant to maintenance personnel working with electronic technical manuals).
    • To capture machine sounds.

Research data indicates that these guidelines make it easier for learners to comprehend and process information.

            (b) Use audio to complement (support) text and visuals. Do not let the audio compete for learner attention. Audio should enhance the presentation-not conflict with the text and visual material being presented.

            (c) Use short audio segments. Learners may get bored if they receive information passively from the program for an extended period of time. Individuals learn most from visuals.

            (d) Avoid long silences in courseware that use extensive audio. Long silences, when sound is expected, may cause learner confusion, and will distract from learning.

            (e) Identify the dialog, narration style, and tone required to present/enhance the training. It will help the actor or narrator(s) provide the audio needed, and hold learner interest. Use a variety of voices, especially for asynchronous learning materials. In general, use male voices for technical training, and female voices when teaching relationships. A female voice is generally clearer and more easily understood. Consider alternating male and female voices, to provide variety, and to maintain learner attention.

            (f) Use audio transitions such as a transition or segue. This provides smooth audio transition between sequences or screens, to retain learner attention.

            (g) Music enhances learning by helping to control how the learner reacts to the visuals, and maintains student motivation. Use music to-

    • Establish a mood.
    • Change the pace (vary tempo, volume, instrumentation, etc.).
    • Add variety, without disrupting the flow.
    • Add motivation.

Note: As a general rule, use music subtly.

            (h) Audio cues can enhance training, by providing a reward, and speeding navigation. Once the link between a cue and a specific event is established, the cue serves as an efficient navigation aid. Provide audio cues by-

    • Using a quiet "beep" to cue the learner that they have done something correctly or incorrectly.
    • Using a specific tune to indicate a certain event in the program (e.g., quizzes inserted in the instruction).
    • Using the same cue throughout the program.

Note: Use a cue indicating a correct or incorrect response judiciously, as they can quickly become irritating, and slow the learner down.

            (i) Use sound effects to enhance visuals. They add realism and improve the transfer of learning.

    d. Special effects. Special effects are a cinematic term that refers to use of special editing and production techniques, to improve the continuity of the product, and provide smooth transitions between scenes. This paragraph provides general guidance on the use of special effects for producing the ICW. This guidance covers visual and audio special effects. In general, special effects-

        (1) Enhance learning, by providing audio and/or visual emphasis to learning points.

        (2) Provide smooth transition from one visual to another; e.g., dissolves and wipes.

        (3) Provide smooth transition from one music piece to another; e.g., segue.

    e. Special effects guidelines. Apply the following guidelines for incorporating special effects into the ICW:

        (1) Only use a special effect when absolutely required, for emphasis or transition. Focus the learner's attention on what is to be learned, not the effects it is possible to include in ICW.

        (2) Omit any special effect that takes attention away from the learning; e.g., draws attention to itself.

4-20. Design standards, conventions, and template requirements.

    a. Designers must comply with command-approved interactive courseware design standards. These established standards ensure courseware developed works on the RDL, and is upwardly compatible with the future goals of TRADOC. Review the current ICW development standards, because standards are periodically reviewed, evaluated, and changed, as necessary.

        (1) Using design standards, develop conventions, or protocols, as a guide in developing IMI. These conventions aid in developing the courseware so it will be consistent, stay in budget, and train the required content; and make learning easier for the student. These conventions provide continuity of appearance and operation, save time, promote clarity and consistency, and eliminate the need for reinvention and modification. Good design conventions make it easier for the learner to go from one lesson to another, without having to relearn how to move around in the following lesson. This allows the learner to know what is expected, where they are, where they have been, and where they are going. Conventions include such items as how the computer is to handle each learner's input, what kind of input is acceptable, and type and placement of feedback.

        (2) Develop courseware to run on the lowest level of hardware required to meet the training requirement. Do not develop courseware that exceeds the Classroom XXI, level 3, hardware standards.

        (3) For more information on programming during development, refer to paragraph 11.

    b. Establish a number of design and conventions before starting design of courseware. Consider such things as-

        (1) User conventions.

        (2) Learner input devices.

        (3) User system capabilities.

        (4) Graphic standards (video, animation).

        (5) Visual elements, and screen design.

        (6) Text display conventions.

        (7) Audio conventions.

        (8) Programming conventions.

    c. Use guidelines in table 4-2 to set conventions.

Table 4-2
Conventions

Screen Type

  • Course/lesson/subject title screen.
  • Introduction/overview screen.
  • Instructional screen.
  • Inserted question and feedback screen.
  • Review screen.
  • Summary screen.
  • Practice exercise screen.
  • Test screen.
  • Help screen.

Screen Layout

  • Amount of text.
  • Text placement and margins.
  • Headings.
  • Text font and size.
  • Captions.
  • Color (text, background, emphasis, borders).
  • Attention-getting cues.
  • Paragraph indentation.
  • Buttons (include-navigation/help/content; format-icon/text).
  • Menus (structure, labels).
  • Windows.

Order of Presentation

  • Title screen.
  • Tasks taught, supported, or reinforced.
  • Opening (motivational segment; i.e., graphic, animation, audio, or video).
  • List of objectives (TLO for each lesson).
  • Main body of instruction, with inserted questions and periodic reviews.
  • Summaries.
  • Exercise, practice, and simulation.
  • Test.

Questions and Feedback

  • Presentation of questions (text, audio, graphical, or combination).
  • Type of student responses required (pointing, selecting, dragging, or text entry).
  • Number of tries allowed.
  • Hint.
  • Type of feedback for each try (knowledge of result, explanation, and remediation).
  • Presentation of feedback (text, audio, graphical, video, or combination).

Others

  • Naming conventions for modules, lessons, tests, graphics, animations, video segments, and files.
  • Transitions.
  • Cursor placement on each new screen.
  • Voice; e.g., referring to students as "YOU" and the program as "I" or a third person.
  • Movement instruction (given via audio, or buttons on the screen).

    d. Templates and programs. Templates have been created or can be created that make it easier to apply the established standards and conventions.

        (1) A template is a preformatted electronic shell, with a particular screen design, and navigation controls ready for input. Embedded software allows control of objects that may include text, graphics, video, and audio.

        (2) These templates reduce the design and programming effort, but do not relieve the designer from meeting those standards, or from providing efficient and effective courseware. If a TRADOC-provided template meets the need, use it because it-

            (a) Saves design time.

            (b) Provides TRADOC standardized courseware navigation controls.

            (c) Provides TRADOC standardized screen layout.

            (d) Provides tested programming and scripting.

    e. Document design decisions. Throughout the design process, document each decision made. Development of the prototype shall also use each of these design decisions. Document any changes to the conventions, so lesson development is consistent, and later revisions are simpler. All individuals involved in the project must know and comply with the standards and conventions used.

    f. When designing the courseware to meet design conventions,-

        (1) Develop a user-friendly system. A user-friendly system should be self-explanatory, make the courseware functions evident to learners, give learners a sense of control, acknowledge learner input (audio or visual), be interruptible at any point (e.g., pause and continue, exit program, etc.), and permit easy reversal of actions. User-friendly courseware allows learners to concentrate on learning the courseware content, and minimizes learner frustration.

        (2) Provide a menu-driven system. Menus display available functions, so learners do not have to know or remember what is available at any point-they simply select from the range of possibilities offered to them. Menus can be "checked off" after completion so the learner can identify the parts of the material completed. When developing menus, use the following guidelines:

            (a) Distinguish menus from the rest of the display.

            (b) Design and display of menus is consistent.

            (c) Allow users to go backward as well as forward, or exit the program on demand.

        (3) Provide a browsing alternative. Browsing allows the first-time learner the opportunity to get the feel of the entire program, and of the content. Learners who have gone through the program can use the feature for a quick review. If available, the graduate can use the courseware for sustainment training, and assuming it is current, as a reference on the job.

        (4) Present information on windows, rather than on a separate screen, if possible. Keep in mind that excessive use of windows can contribute to learner confusion. Using windows leverages the fact that many computer operating systems, and software applications, use a windows-style user interface to display information.

        (5) Provide on-screen help, and allow the learner to request and receive help information, so that the actions to request help do not affect the student's course of action. Help functions should provide the learner with supplemental information, explanations, or assistance, without affecting the learner's ongoing performance.

        (6) Provide instructions that describe screen functions. Learners need appropriate and clear navigational icons, with instructions on how to navigate even the most effectively designed programs.

        (7) Allow for the capturing of learner performance data within the capability of the authoring tool; e.g., time spent on a learning activity; time spent on a lesson; number of retries to complete the module or lesson; and which questions were incorrectly answered. This data can be applied against training completion standards, and provides evaluation data for improving the training.

        (8) Provide an optional navigation lesson for new learners, including overview of the content, special features of the program, menu structure, how to use the input device, and how to get around in the program. This trains students to use the navigation tools, so they can concentrate on learning the courseware content. It also supplies standardized navigation controls across courses, and ensures learners can use input devices.

        (9) Use the TRADOC autoplay/navigation objects controls/buttons. Learners can concentrate on learning the content, rather than the navigation mechanism, and will not have to learn new navigation techniques as they go from lesson to lesson.

        (10) Follow the software development program standards, unless a convincing argument is offered as to why the standards are not applicable to the design. This minimizes development work, and learners will not have to learn new navigation techniques as they go from lesson to lesson.

        (11) Clearly identify screen objects. Only display an object as an icon when its meaning is absolutely clear. If icons are used, they should convey enough information as to their purpose, so learners will not be confused by their function.

        (12) Design the program to accept learner input from the keyboard or by mouse, since both are standard computer equipment. A keyboard is good for text input or selecting a menu item, and a mouse is good for positioning or selecting an object, and making a selection from a menu. When a mouse is used, make the acceptance area larger than the actual button, for faster and easier selection, especially when the button is small. Do not overlap the acceptance area of different targets. This may cause incorrect actions to occur, or learners may click/touch a little off the target, and nothing will happen.

        (13) Provide standardized error messages that are informative and low-key. Error messages should be specific about the nature and the cause of an error, given immediately after an error occurs, inform students of the correct course of action to take, and be nonthreatening. Never leave a learner wondering what happened when an error occurs, inform them as to how they are to respond.

    g. Development considerations. The actual programming, or authoring, of an interactive courseware program typically occurs in the development phase. However, give consideration to a number of programming issues, when designing the interactive courseware. Program requirements overlap all design decisions. The ICW must be easy to install, operate, and uninstall, or it will not be used. Use of the standard procedures will allow students to go from one CD to another, without having to learn new access processes. It will save development time to use the standard programs and icons provided by TRADOC. Completely remove the ICW from the computer, so the next user can install and operate the required training. Consider the following when designing ICW:

        (1) Provide for easy installation by using the TRADOC AutoPlay Objects and TRADOC Navigation Objects to include-

            (a) Checking for sufficient hard disk space.

            (b) Notifying the installer if insufficient space is available, and how much additional space is required.

            (c) Having the installation software checked for the presence of hardware or software required to run the courseware; i.e., sound card, and-

    • If hardware is not present, inform the user and ensure the courseware still runs, even at a reduced performance.
    • If software is not available, inform the user, and provide link for software download.

            (d) Provide for an easy way to uninstall the program, so that the appropriate training is removed from the user's computer.

            (e) Provide a dialog box confirming or canceling the user's intent, before removal of the training is initiated.

            (f) The uninstall software will not remove any course management data.

            (g) Store courseware management user's files apart from course files.

        (2) Plan to store all files that hyperlink among themselves in the same directory or folder. Store media files (video, audio, etc.) in the same directory or in a subdirectory/subfolder. This convention enables the computer to quickly find the needed files.


Chapter 5
Design, Develop, and Validate IMI Tests

5-1. Test methods. There are two primary methods used to test learners using IMI:

    a. Simulated/actual hands-on performance tests. This method requires learners to prove mastery by performing a simulation of a task (TLOs/ELOs), or actually performing those TLO/ELOs that might be performed within the constraints of the IMI delivery system. Note: This is the preferred method of testing via IMI; use as much as the medium allows.

    b. Performance-based (written test) options. Using this method, an assessment is made of the learner's ability to apply facts, principles, procedures, etc., required to perform the learning objective. Sets of essay, short answer, matching, drag and drop, and multiple-choice questions are commonly used for performance-based tests. Note: The computer cannot grade essay tests. Send tests to a grader for scoring.

5-2. Test development. Due to the unique aspects of delivering IMI tests, it is up to the designer to ensure the design, development, and implementation procedures-

    a. Develop the test as realistically as possible, by using visual, audio, and graphic components and simulations. Note: If the same personnel developing the IMI do not develop tests, merge storyboards prior to production, since many of the same visuals should be used for testing and training. This increases learner interest, transfer of learning, and learner retention.

    b. Develop a simulated performance test that provides a two-dimensional (2-D) or 3-D simulation of the required performance. The test developed shall simulate on-the-job environment as closely as possible; requiring the learner to complete the simulation, through application and synthesis of knowledge and skill presented in the instructional materials. This will ensure the learner performs the objective to the stated or required standard. The performance being asked on the test is a simulation, as close as possible to the job environment, to ensure the learner can perform the task in the actual task environment, under the actual condition and standards that are expected.

    c. Use the computer's capability to-

        (1) Randomly select, and order for delivery, the validated test items/sets that sufficiently measure each objective, based upon the test plan.

        (2) Randomly select common equipment malfunctions, scenarios, and control and indicator settings; thereby allowing multiple validated versions of test/test items. Note: Care must be taken when using random selection, to ensure that each item/set has been sufficiently validated. When in doubt of the validity of the test item, do not use random selection. Only use properly administrated, validated tests.

        (3) Store and give feedback to the learners and trainers, based on learner response.

        (4) Branch based on learner response(s), to retrain/provide remediation only on those objectives needed.

        (5) Collect and transmit test and test item analysis data. This will allow for the maximum utilization of the computer capability, both in areas of real time, and task fidelity.

    d. If necessary, provide a means for learners to "back out" of taking a pretest. The developer determines whether or not to avoid learner frustration, by allowing the learner to skip, or exit, the program. This will eliminate, or greatly reduce, stress on the learner, when they do not know the content of the learning situation; thus ensuring maximization of available training time.

    e. If deemed desirable by the training developer, provide a method for learners to change a response, and review their completed test, if appropriate. Use of this technique permits a learner to correct an incorrect response, or view a completed test.

    f. Provide feedback to learners' answers, in the same order in which they appeared within the test. Reduce learner confusion; provide feedback in the context of the material that is learned, within a time that is acceptable to the learner.

5-3. Test selection. The designer must determine the most effective and appropriate design options for the material that is to be tested. The tests may include equipment simulation, visually performance-oriented, and textual questions. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter VI-7, and appendix J, for additional information on types and uses of tests. Several design options are-

    a. Simulated Performance Test. The simulated-performance test provides a 2-D or 3-D simulation of the required performance. This test simulates on-the-job environment, by requiring the trainee to complete the simulation, through application and synthesis of knowledge and skill presented in the instructional materials.

    b. Discovery (Heuristic) Test. Problem-solving simulations, that emulate on-the-job environment, are presented to the learner with stimulus information that is inadequate, incomplete, ambiguous, or irrelevant to the simulated environment. Require the learner to synthesize knowledge, and apply training received, in order to solve the problem(s) presented in the job performance simulation.

    c. Simple Gaming Test. Simple gaming tests can be presented in a gaming style.

5-4. Test preparation. Interactive multimedia instruction can administer realistic, performance-oriented, criterion-referenced tests. These tests determine if training objectives have been achieved, and measure what trainees actually know, or are able to do, in relation to the standards of the training objective(s). Note: TRADOC Reg 350-70, paragraphs VI-7-6 through VI-7-8, list the specific steps in preparing criterion-referenced tests, and discuss test plan production, and test control procedures. It also touches on the use of test item analysis, and setting of the passing (GO/NO-GO) score.

    a. Follow the steps below to prepare tests.

        (1) Design or write the test, test item, or test item set.

            (a) Randomly select items or conditions as appropriate. See paragraph 5-2, above.

            (b) Provide learner feedback.

            (c) Determine trainee's prior knowledge.

            (d) Create storyboards and items to be added to IMI programs.

        (2) Select graphics to be used in the course.

            (a) Rapidly display graphics.

            (b) Add realism and interactivity to tests and exercises.

    b. Select the type of graphics for the IMI, based on the objective. If the objective is-

            (1) Equipment related, use a pictorial representation (video or computer graphics) of the actual equipment.

            (2) Decisionmaking or soft skill, use a linear motion (video and audio) scenario, with appropriate courses of action from which the learner can select.

            (3) Identification of items or forms, use a photograph or drawing of the item or form. Ensure that the photograph or drawing is clear, crisp, and free from distortion.

5-5. Test delivery.

    a. As part of the IMI design, there are two options for the delivery of the IMI test-

        (1) Test integrated within a module. The IMI tests may be totally embedded within the instructional module, as an integral part of the total unit, including the objectives, material presentation, practices, test, remediation, and feedback. Actual "grading" of the posttest is done within or outside of the actual module. See paragraph 5-7 for more information on test grading.

        (2) Testing as a separate IMI module. Design and deliver the IMI test, as a completely separate piece of IMI courseware, administered after the learner indicates their readiness to take the posttest. For optimal use, this will require the addition of a Learning Management System (LMS), to control the selection of the test version that is delivered, and the actual delivery to the learner workstation.

    b. If desired for test control purposes, separate the instructional presentation software from the testing courseware. The embedded test might be used when test control is not an issue, and when integrating remediation for speed of delivery. The capabilities of the IMI authoring tool selected, and the LMS, might also dictate the selection of a particular delivery method over another. Technical consideration-such as high-quality, interactive, and or distributed simulations-could dictate the delivery of testing of courseware as a separate item.

5-6. Interactive multimedia instruction test validation. Unique aspects, associated with IMI test validation, are addressed below. Generic procedures for test validation, also applicable to IMI testing, are found at appendix J. Ensure the IMI test validation includes the following checks:

    a. Since the learner-in most cases-will not have the opportunity to ask questions, test instructions must be absolutely clear, complete, and unambiguous.

    b. The learner can respond to the test item(s) as designed.

    c. All links, permissions, reviews, and navigation capabilities function as designed.

    d. Graphics, video, and simulations used within the test, are clear and free of ambiguities.

    e. The learner has the capability to review/change responses, based upon the design of the test.

    f. Learner responses are recorded/saved/transmitted, based upon the test design plan.

5-7. Test grading.

    a. At the conclusion of testing, there are two options for grading or scoring the test items and exams, based on the instructional design, and the programming capabilities of the software selected for the courseware. These two options may be used regardless of whether the test is an integral part of a total IMI courseware module, or administered as a separate module. NOTE: "Scoring" is the first step in determining a "grade" for a learner. Hereafter, the word "grading" will be used to describe both scoring, and the assigning of a PASS/FAIL "grade."

        (1) Test grading internal to the courseware. The IMI module, or lesson itself, using the inherent capabilities of internal programming, may evaluate the learner response, "grade" the response, and provide feedback on the correct or incorrect response evaluated. Additionally, design the IMI to further determine an overall score, compare the score with the GO/NO-GO (passing cutoff) criteria, and provide learner feedback as to whether the criteria has or has not been met (i.e., assign a "grade" of GO or NO-GO).

        (2) Test grading external to the courseware. Many IMI programs and lessons either must or can use an external LMS, which can be called on to perform programmed "grading" functions. These functions may include the evaluation of raw learner responses, grading of the raw responses, or submission of the raw learner responses for grading, determination of an overall score, comparison of the learner score with the GO/NO GO criteria, and branching, which could provide feedback or remediation, as needed. Raw learner responses are sent from the IMI courseware module, to the LMS, for "grading."

    b. Choosing a grading method. The nature of the test items frequently dictates the grading method used. By its nature, an item that requires manual grading cannot be graded internally by the lesson. The courseware must deliver the learner product back to the LMS for distribution to the instructor/grader, and ultimately deliver the response to the learner. The capabilities of the IMI authoring test software, and related LMS, play an integral part in the grading method chosen. If the test can be graded electronically, consider how quickly grading and feedback is provided to the learner, as part of the grading method chosen. Due to the nature of communication links required, coupled with the risk of an interruption in the link itself, use of an LMS to provide grading may be a slower method.

5-8. Test feedback and remediation. At the conclusion of testing, provide the learner quality feedback and remediation, which will maximize the learning experience. As soon as possible following the scoring of a learner test, give feedback and remediation at two levels-

    a. Global. At the global level, the learner should receive-

        (1) Test score information.

        (2) Subtest (section) score information, if applicable.

        (3) Links (automatically or through learner interaction) to prescriptive or diagnostic training, for those areas where the established standards have not been met (passing cut-off scores).

    b. Test item. At the test item level, provide the learner-at a minimum-information on which items were missed, and the correct response to the items missed. The following features are desirable, but not essential:

        (1) Hyperlinks to specific training material (e.g., technical manual, page, table, chart) that addresses those areas identified by the test as a deficiency

        (2) Remediation tailored to the learner's incorrect response (s).

    c. See appendix J for additional information.


Chapter 6
Interactive Courseware Design Documents and Media Production

6-1. Overview. This chapter provides guidance on various ways to prototype, document design decisions, and produce media. After the design is approved, add content to the IMI, and produce the media. The first step is to add text and programming instructions to the storyboards; describe visuals that need to be repurposed, rendered, or produced; and create audio scripts. After, or during, the storyboarding process, start producing the media.

6-2. Design documentation.

    a. Document design. The approach taken to document the design decisions will depend on whether the IMI is produced in-house, or by contract. The matrix in appendix D shows the relationship between the required Instructional Media Design Package (IMDP) for contracted products, the outputs of the design document from Allen Communications Designer's Edge, and the required TRADOC course design elements for any instructional material, without regard to delivery means.

    b. Gain approval. Regardless of the approach used for documenting the design decision, gaining approval, before proceeding, is a major step of this process. Get a reality check from an expert instructional designer; and listen closely to their feedback. Get approval from the highest level of management involved in the work. Make sure the prototype(s) illustrating the design decision(s) is part of the package submitted for approval. The school's technical representative approves a contract requirement. Before approved for contract purposes, management should approve it.

6-3. Instructional Media Design Package.

    a. The IMDP documents the design requirements for development and production of instructional media education/training materials. This is a multimedia contract requirement, usually produced by the contractor. All IMI shall have a design concept of the courseware, and be designed as an integral part of the total course. The IMI project team follows the approved design to develop the courseware. Revise the IMDP and design, if changes occur during development. This will allow for consistent development and later maintenance of the IMI. The IMDP-

        (1) Gives everyone a chance to visualize the lesson(s) before start of development.

        (2) Provides a tool/means to make changes that will not affect work already completed (such as storyboards or programmed lessons).

        (3) Describes what is the "best approach" for presenting the IMI instruction.

    b. Completing an IMDP. The most important aspect of the IMDP is the amount of detail it should contain. Providing a small segment of a lesson, as part of the design strategy, allows the client to clearly understand screen layouts, instructional branching, testing strategies, and production and graphic treatment. The IMDP is similar to an executive summary of the IMI, not a detailed description of the material to be produced. The IMDP shall include-

        (1) An overview of the content of the course (lesson objectives).

        (2) A brief description of the learning activities, and instructional strategies. This is a very important aspect of IMI design. Chapter 4 describes in detail how to determine the IMI instructional strategies.

        (3) A high-level description of how the IMI will work, from the student's perspective. Take the task data and objectives, and determine the number of modules and lessons required to support the objectives. List the modules, by name, which will make up the course, and break the modules into lessons; and give a name to each lesson.

        (4) Enough information to give the developers and customers a "feel" for the IMI.

        (5) A course map is required to show how the IMI will work, from the student's point of view.

        (6) A description of the student measurement (testing) approach for the course.

        (7) A list of supplemental materials to be developed to support the course.

    c. Instructional Media Design Package general content. Table 6-1 contains the general organization of the IMDP. Much of this information will serve as a guide for contractor personnel that may prepare or assist in the preparation of the IMDP.

    d. Procedure. Follow the steps below to plan the IMDP.

        (1) Review source documents and previous design decisions.

        (2) Prepare cover and preface.

        (3) Determine course data.

        (4) Prepare module and lesson objectives.

        (5) Identify production and postproduction requirements.

        (6) Determine use of adjunctive material and electronic resource material.

        (7) Obtain school review and approval of the IMDR.

Table 6-1
IMDP content

Part

Contents

Cover Page

  • Course title.
  • Developer's name.
  • School name.
  • Distribution statement.
  • Date prepared.

Preface

  • Purpose.
  • Description of IMI content.
  • Development goals and rationale.
  • Course map and narrative.
  • Review and approval procedures.

Course Data

  • Sequence of tasks.
  • Estimated module, lesson, and test completion times.
  • Estimated number of CD-ROMs or floppy disks.
  • Conventions.
  • Safety considerations.
  • Manager's guide.
  • Security classification.

Modules

  • TLO.
  • Lessons with ELOs.
  • Flowcharts.
  • Tests.
  • Instructional strategies.

Requirements

  • Production and postproduction.
  • Administration.

Adjunctive Material and Electronic Resource Material

  • To be used "as is."
  • To be developed.

Prototype

  • Segment of lesson.
  • Pre-and posttest.

 

6-4. Design document from Designer's Edge.

    a. All reports within Designer's Edge can be customized using design decisions documented in the database.

    b. The general content of the design report from Designer's Edge is-

        (1) Heading information and summary of design.

        (2) Selected tasks for course from the task list.

        (3) Milestones.

        (4) Target population.

        (5) Objectives List.

        (6) Test items.

        (7) Content outline.

        (8) Course map report (the course map generated by Designers Edge does not meet Army requirements) and related-

            (a) Learning activities.

            (b) Templates.

            (c) Objectives.

            (d) Content.

            (e) Treatment (theme, setting, tone and pacing).

            (f) Test items.

            (9) Evaluation plan.

            (10) Color scheme and motif.

6-5. Develop storyboards.

    a. A storyboard provides explicit graphic and textual information on how the courseware will look, sound, and function. Consideration is given to general principles, and visual, audio, and programming elements found in paragraph 4-16. Storyboards-

        (1) Are usually created when designing the education/training courseware, per TRADOC Reg 350-70, and chapter 4, above.

        (2) Are a visual depiction of the program to be produced. Produce a storyboard as part of a script, simultaneously, or as a stand-alone design product.

        (3) Depicts and details all branching requirements.

        (4) Are used to develop the actual screen presentations.

        (5) Have each scene/screen usually represented by a separate graphic (drawing, still photograph, etc.). It may be developed at the actual lesson frame/page, or at a higher course structure level, depending on the courseware being produced.

        (6) Can be developed in a word document, database, or in a commercial off-the-shelf/government, off-the-shelf storyboarding tool that meets Army education/training technical and functional standards.

    b. Purpose. Storyboards support, or replace, the production of a script. Use these storyboards to develop the actual screen presentations for IMI. Develop lower-level IMI (text and graphics only) storyboards on the actual lesson frame or page. They may not require separate storyboards. It is an excellent tool for planning a production and obtaining production approvals. Develop storyboards in a word document, database, or in a special purpose storyboarding tool.

    c. Responsibilities.

        (1) The training developer is responsible for ensuring-

            (a) The efficiency and effectiveness of the education/training product being produced.

            (b) Sequential progressive education/training is provided.

            (c) Horizontal and vertical alignment of education/training is maintained.

    (2) The SME (e.g., instructor/writer) is responsible for-

            (a) Assisting in producing the storyboard.

            (b) Ensuring the technical accuracy and completeness of the product content.

    d. Storyboard design principles. Consider a number of general IMI design principles when developing the IMI storyboards. Examples are-

        (1) User friendliness.

        (2) Menu-driven design.

        (3) Browsing alternatives.

        (4) Help functions.

        (5) Record tracking.

        (6) Navigation.

        (7) Impact of type of input devices.

        (8) User messages.

        (9) Cues.

        (10) Capabilities of authoring software.

    e. Procedure. Create the storyboards by completing these steps:

        (1) Determine standard frames needed for the course. Frames can have different functions. Design the layouts to accommodate frames for-

            (a) Large or small graphics, or video with accompanying text and narration.

            (b) Objectives, tests, questions, practice exercises, reviews, and games per the design.

            (c) Menus or other interactions.

Note: The frame types should become standard, to the maximum degree possible, to ensure learners concentrate on learning the content-not how to operate the courseware.

        (2) Develop templates for the standard frames. Embedded software allows control of objects that may include text, graphics, audio, and video. Use standardized templates to-

            (a) Make the course look and feel consistent.

            (b) Help developers limit the amount of screen elements (graphics, text, videos) they can use in a given frame; thus enhancing learning, and saving valuable computer storage space.

            (c) Provide a standard interface for learners, making courseware user friendly.

            (d) Save production time, by using standard storyboarding pages over and over again.

    (3) Follow courseware design; e.g., structure, learning objectives, course map for the content, and sequence of the course.

            (a) Create a storyboard, or series of storyboards, for learning activities at the appropriate detail level required, for the courseware being created.

            (b) Show all branching paths in a series of graphics.

            (c) Follow the flowchart (or build it while creating the storyboards) for branching and "Go-To" information.

        (4) Establish/adhere to the course conventions and design decisions in the design documents. Courseware conventions-

            (a) Enhance student learning efficiency.

            (b) Give courseware a consistent professional look.

            (c) Improve the friendliness of the courseware.

    (5) Fill out every field that applies to a given frame or page. Storyboard fields are optional; many are used to create items such as shot lists, and graphic description lists. Storyboards must contain enough detail to-

            (a) Allow the SME to visualize and understand what will happen, frame-by-frame.

            (b) Allow video, audio, graphics, and animation experts to visualize and follow the concepts envisioned when the course was designed.

            (c) Sort out and print reports of information that is invaluable for planning the production of video, graphics, audio, and animation.

            (6) Provide branching information by-

            (a) Indicating every possible branch in the interaction.

            (b) Providing a unique destination for every possible learner response. All responses may, or may not, be choices.

        (7) Provide feedback and remediation. Give feedback and remediation for all anticipated learner performance and responses.

        (8) List requirements for course management information. Identify/indicate data to collect, record, or use for learner performance measurement, progress, monitoring, or other course/courseware related requirements.

6-6. Develop audio scripts. Audio scripting involves writing the dialogue/narration required for the courseware. Apply the following guidance when writing an audio script, or audio portion of the AV script or storyboard, to make it easier for the narrator or actors to record or read the audio.

    a. When writing the audio portion of the script or storyboard-

        (1) Write dialog and narration to support the text or graphic being used by-

            (a) Having a corresponding visual for every piece of audio, for visual-centered training.

            (b) Always relate the audio to the visual displayed. Audio should enhance and contribute to the learning; otherwise, it should not be used.

    (2) Think visually, but write the audio for the ear-not the eye. Remember-

            (a) As a designer, ensure the audio supports the video.

            (b) Ensure the audio supports the required learning.

        (3) Write to the student's language ability, subject matter knowledge, and vocabulary. The student must readily understand the courseware dialog and narration.

        (4) Keep the language simple, active, and direct. Use short sentences, and appropriate style and tone.

        (5) Use appropriate style and tone by sticking to the message. Tell the learner only what is relevant.

            (a) Irrelevant information distracts from learning.

            (b) Production of irrelevant information is a waste of time and money.

        (6) Avoid the use of acronyms, technical jargon, unfamiliar terms, and ambiguous words. If used, define them. Use of unknown terms distracts from training.

        (7) Use different audio techniques, to keep the learner interested in the process of learning. Vary the pace of the audio by-

            (a) Giving the learner an opportunity to process the idea/information presented.

            (b) Providing for breaks of silence, to bridge different scenes.

            (c) Avoiding monotony.

        (8) Read the proposed dialog or narration out loud, or to an assistant, to determine how it sounds. This will ensure the written words mean what was intended, and support the learning taking place.

        (9) Avoid long pauses in visuals while waiting for extended narration to finish (usually have no more than 20 seconds of audio per visual). Long audio pauses interfere with concentration, and make the learner reluctant to repeat these segments.

    b. Keep audio segments short to-

        (1) Enhance learning.

        (2) Avoid student boredom if they receive information passively from the program for an extended period of time.

    c. Prepare the audio script for reading. It is critical that a narrator be able to read the narration script without stumbling on the words. Have the narrator practice the script several times before recording the audio in the studio. To accomplish this, the narration script must be specially prepared. Always provide a typed script using a legible type size. This script shall-

        (1) Be double or triple spaced between lines.

        (2) Not have narration pages stapled together.

        (3) Have all page numbers in the upper right-hand corner.

        (4) Specify how acronyms should be read.

        (5) Spell out all numbers.

        (6) Spell difficult words and names phonetically.

        (7) Separate each letter in an abbreviation with a hyphen (e.g., CD-ROM).

        (8) Indicate emphasis, in parentheses, if inflection is not obvious.

        (9) Describe nonverbal cues in parentheses.

        (10) Indicate pauses by the word "PAUSE" in parentheses.

6-7. Develop video descriptions.

    a. Video guidelines. Designing a video involves writing a treatment, script, and/or creating a storyboard, depending on the size of the project. A video script and a storyboard usually include sketches of the shots and camera angles, as well as camera movements (trucks, zooms). Some standard-shot abbreviations are-

    • CU = Close-up
    • LS = Long shot
    • MS = Medium shot
    • MLS = Medium long shot
    • ECU = Extreme close-up
    • OS = Over-the-shoulder shot

    b. When preparing the script or storyboard, document intended production (development) needs, and their source of supply. Include such things as proposed narrators, actors, field environment, studio, artwork, special equipment, props, costumes, and lighting. Identify any existing footage or artwork used. Define the abbreviations used in the script and storyboard, and communicate them to all production team members (e.g., GR for graphics, AU for audio, VI for video) to ensure everybody understands and uses the same abbreviations. Table 6-2 shows an extract from a script.

    c. Production can be the most costly part of courseware development. Keep management apprised of identified requirements and their associated costs. When designing ICW-

        (1) Describe the use of audio.

        (2) Identify use of motion, stills, step frame, or slow motion (or a mixture used), and the rationale.

        (3) Describe use of computer text or graphics, and graphic overlays.

        (4) Identify access to glossary, helps, and instructions.

Table 6-2
Script extract

Visual

Audio

9. LIVE STAGE ACTION:

Soldier now fires at the First OPFOR just as a Second OPFOR appears.

SOUND of M-16 FIRING.

SOUND of M-16 MILES gear.

10. SLIDES and VIDEO of NTC, JRTC, and CMTC exercises.

 

TANKS, INFANTRY moving.

VO NARRATOR: These soldiers are being tested....

To see if they've been trained to win. For as each soldier has been trained, so he will fight!!

11. CU of various soldiers.

 

    d. Video storyboard. Apply the following guidelines when creating video storyboards and scripts:

        (1) Establish visual orientation, by presenting initial information using a long-shot, medium-shot, and close-up view, in that order.

        (2) Use professional video production conventions.

        (3) A truck-in and zoom-in focuses attention on a particular object, while maintaining visual orientation (provides a similar effect). Focus learner attention on what is to be observed and learned.

        (4) Long shots establish the setting and provide a frame of reference. Close-up shots grab attention, provide details, and imply that what is being shown is important. Use of proven cinematic techniques minimizes learner confusion.

        (5) Use camera height to provide psychological impressions. A low camera angle, looking up at a person, implies that the person is strong, powerful, and authoritative. A high camera angle, looking down on a person, makes the person appear weak and inferior.

        (6) Avoid static shots when shooting motion video. When showing something new, focus on the subject long enough for the audience to register what is being shown. Once the audience has seen the subject in the shot, do not focus on it as long the next time it is shown. Static videos waste storage space and students' time. The eye focuses on movement, instead of static images. Use a still graphic or image.

        (7) Plan to keep the main subject well lit, by identification of any special lighting requirements. Plan for image placement from shot to shot. Appropriate lighting directs the learner's eye to a desired position. The eye focuses on lighted areas, instead of dark areas.

6-8. Develop graphic and animation descriptions.

    a. Graphics are visual representations, such as drawings, patterns, graphs, and diagrams. Graphics and animations serve to clarify information, make information easier to absorb and retain, and help the learner recall important information. Good graphics accelerate the learning process; poor graphics weaken instruction. Use graphics to explain or demonstrate the skill, knowledge, or performance. Do not use graphics to provide entertainment. Prior to preparing computer graphics for the courseware, consider the guidelines governing the use of graphics. After reviewing these guidelines, decide the most effective graphic design for the courseware. Base the decision to use graphics with extensive detail, or conceptual representations, on the intelligence of the target audience.

    b. When designing courseware graphics-

        (1) Avoid covering essential information when superimposing graphics over visuals.

        (2) Ensure graphics enhance learning.

        (3) Make maximum use of available graphics.

        (4) Design graphics for display on a monitor that the user will actually use.

    c. Follow the steps below to design IMI graphics:

        (1) Determine the amount of information to be presented with the graphic. Present only one key thought of action per graphic. Graphics need to support the training being presented.

        (2) Decide if a potential complex graphic must be divided into sections, and displayed in a series of frames.

        (3) Decide the appropriate size and space for the graphic.

        (4) Determine display resolution (i.e., 640 x 480 pixels, 256 colors). Design the graphic for displayed on the end user monitor or display station.

    d. Software graphic libraries can expedite the design and development of IMI graphics. These libraries provide a variety of figures, symbols, equipment, and drawings, which can be used, or adapted for use, in the IMI program. To repurpose/modify graphics in libraries, cite the graphic that needs modifying, and the modification needed. Most TSCs have graphic libraries, and must be considered in the training development process.

    e. When selecting colors for graphics-

        (1) Avoid using high chroma, brilliant, or electric colors for text fields, since they make reading difficult.

        (2) Ensure text and graphic colors contrast with background color.

        (3) Use color text combinations that aid reading or viewing.

            (a) White or light yellow text on dark backgrounds.

            (b) Use blue, black, or dark text on a light background, such as beige.

            (c) Use color background combinations to identify the type of screen (i.e., procedure, test, caution, warning, or menu).

            (d) Specify color combinations in the IMI design strategy conventions.

    (4) Use defined color combination consistently throughout the program.

    (5) Sample screen conventions are provided in table 6-3.

Table 6-3
Sample screen conventions

Type

Convention

Warning

Yellow text on a red background.

Caution

Blue text on a yellow background.

Menu

Yellow text on a blue background.

Procedure

Yellow text on a dark green background.

Test

White, blue, or yellow text on a dark contrasting background.

Direction

Yellow text on a dark blue strip over video.

    f. Consider the quality of existing visuals before selecting them for use in the IMI. Flaws in the visual (e.g., poor focus, grainy texture, or lack of proper color balance) are magnified when copied or scanned. Consider the following guidelines for reuse or repurpose of materials:

        (1) Videotape: Use the original videotape as the source for the courseware. Use videotape that was original Video Home Standard (VHS).

        (3) Slide: Consider the difference in aspect ratio between 35mm slides (3:2) and the screen (4:3). Note: Critical information on edges of a 35mm slide could be lost, if care is not taken.

        (4) Still Photograph: Ensure photograph is of professional quality-sharp, good tonal range, color-balanced, and well lit. If necessary, have a professional photographer provide a still photograph of the image required, to the highest level of resolution possible. This will ensure capture of detail and sharpness.

        (5) Stock Footage Video, Slide, Photos, and Film: Obtain legal clearance for U.S. Army use IAW AR 25-1.

    g. Describing existing graphics or photographs, even if no repurpose is required, can give the graphic artist a better idea of the requirement. Describe in detail what the graphic or animation sequence is to depict. It is often necessary to communicate directly with the graphic artist, in order to transfer thoughts and words to a product that can be used in the IMI.

6-9. Develop text. Refer to paragraph 4-11 for information on designing text for the IMI. As text is added to the storyboard, remember:

    a. This is the text the student will see. Do not plan to redo it.

    b. Students read text left to right and top to bottom when placing text on the screen.

    c. Not to put too much text on a single screen.

    d. Be concise.

    e. Do not scroll the text, if information is critical.

    f. Develop text IAW the established convention.

6-10. Develop programming and branching information. Describe the interaction on each screen with enough detail that a programmer (or another developer) can understand what is going on and needed. If objects are to appear on the screen in a particular sequence, add this information. Include a description of each screen's branching options, and a precise destination for every possible choice. Identify, in detail, all interactions that will happen during a simulation. Creating simulations is one of the major activities that requires detailed descriptions of what happens with each interaction from the student.

6-11. Produce media.

    a. Audiovisual production can be the most difficult, costly, and time-consuming portion of development, and is usually completed by the AVPRO, in coordination with the training developer. Changes to AV products are difficult, and often present more problems than producing them correctly the first time. Carefully plan all aspects of any AV production.

    b. After storyboards are complete, produce visual elements, and audio. Use databases and reporting functions of programs, such as Designer's Edge, to help organize the media elements required for the courseware.

    c. Whether shooting video, photographing hardware, or rendering animation, perform preproduction before starting the actual production. Preproduction consists of those events to accomplish prior to the start of the actual production. Preproduction-

        (1) Reduces confusion.

        (2) Saves time.

        (3) Ensures necessary equipment, talent, crew, and/or location are available.

        (4) Ensures all production media is acquired.

        (5) Communicates intent, where words on a storyboard may not.

    d. In preproduction, shotlists (a list of shots needed for video production), scripts, graphic lists, and various other reports are generated, depending on the storyboard components. This part of preproduction is accomplished when designing the courseware or supporting media. Basic steps performed during preproduction are-

        (1) Creating reports.

        (2) Surveying and scheduling locations.

        (3) Choosing and scheduling equipment, ranges, talent, facilities, and crews.

        (4) Scheduling production.

    e. See paragraph 6-14 for more information on producing AV products. Follow the steps in paragraph 6-18 to prepare AV products for multimedia production.

6-12. Produce computer graphics and animations.

    a. Graphics are key to effective and efficient IMI. In designing graphics, do not make them complicated. Depending on the complexity of the program, graphics may be-

        (1) Simple line drawings.

        (2) Actual photographs, with overlay text.

        (3) Diagrams.

        (4) Original artwork.

    b. Selecting which type of graphic to use in the IMI program will depend on its complexity, and guidance from the project manager. Common types of graphics are described below:

        (1) Line Drawing: Visual representation of an idea or object shown by means of lines, marks, shapes, and symbols. High contrast, short qualities; range 1:5.

        (2) Computer Generated: Visual image generated by a computer; e.g., charts, graphs, line drawings, equipment panels, animation, and three dimensional drawings.

        (3) Artwork: Original artwork prepared by an illustrator; may be scanned into the computer.

        (4) Continuous Tone: Low contrast, long tonal range 1:28.

        (5) Half Tone: Graphics composed of dots of various densities.

        (6) Photographs: Photographs (color, and black and white) of actual equipment or personnel, scanned into the computer.

    c. The following guidelines are provided for production of text, graphics, and animation displays in an IMI program:

        (1) Graphics.

            (a) Follow sketches or drawings shown in storyboard, for consistency with design specifications.

            (b) Use computer to generate graphics, when possible, to achieve better detail, and more sophisticated-looking graphics.

            (c) Identify graphics library to use, so developers can access the graphic for their lesson.

            (d) Program graphics to appear on the screen before text or captions, to make it easier for the student to comprehend presentation information.

            (e) Program large or complex graphics to appear on the screen in logical sections. Each section should finish drawing before the next begins, to make it easier for the student to view and understand what is being presented.

        (2) Animation.

            (a) If motion is the point of the animation, do not begin the animation until the entire screen appears, then prompt the student to begin the animation. This supports learner control guidelines.

            (b) If the result of motion is the focus, draw the object, and then begin the animation. After the animation occurs, add labels, captions, and text on the screen, to focus the learner's attention on key elements. Ensure the animation does not distract from learning that is occurring.

6-13. Produce AV/video for IMI.

    a. The actions of different groups involved in the video production for IMI must be coordinated. Coordination must be accomplished for-

        (1) Scriptwriters.

        (2) Talent (actors or narrators).

        (3) Props and costumes.

        (4) Video shooting locations.

        (5) Preparation of the production schedule.

        (6) Transportation.

        (7) Safety, legal, and talent releases.

        (8) Environmental and backup considerations.

    b. Follow the steps below to coordinate video production actions.

        (1) Identify actor and narrator requirements based on the script by-

            (a) Determining if in-house or contractor talent will be used. Arrange for in-house actors or narrators, if available. Contract for professional actors or narrators, if needed.

            (b) Conducting and select casting sessions for actors and narrators.

        (2) Identify video shooting locations based on the script.

            (a) Determine locations needed for the entire production, or a single scene.

            (b) Conduct a location survey.

            (c) Coordinate requirements with VI/TSC.

            (d) Obtain necessary forms and permits to use the location.

        (3) Assist in preparing the production schedule by-

            (a) Using an approved product script to identify requirements for scene, location, and personnel and equipment.

            (b) Developing a schedule for each location, identifying required personnel and equipment.

            (c) Coordinating this schedule with VI/TSC personnel, or contractor personnel; training department, if school assets are used; and supporting tactical units, if used.

        (4) Ensure necessary props and costumes are available for production, by obtaining required uniforms, props, and equipment. Verify the correct quantity is available when, and where, needed.

        (5) Coordinate the transportation requirements for personnel, props, and equipment, in order to determine when and where they are required. Request necessary transportation, and check that requested transportation delivers, and returns, needed personnel, props, and equipment on time.

        (6) Coordinate with the appropriate safety and legal offices, to ensure production complies with safety requirements, and local legal requirements.

    c. Producing a high-quality master requires adherence to the rigid specifications for master videotape production (see app F). In general, the master videotape must have full-bodied sound, low noise, and clear visuals. Follow the steps below to produce the master videotape:

        (1) Ensure the shooting is as specified in the approved IMI product script, and production plan.

        (2) Monitor the quality of the shooting sessions by verifying educational soundness, checking scenes for technical accuracy, and ensuring sessions meet specified safety, legal, and environmental considerations.

        (3) Perform necessary supporting actions, as required, by providing talent (acting or narration); confirming continuity of set from scene to scene; taking still photographs and notes; moving equipment, sets, and props; and preparing titles and character-generated data.

        (4) Assist in editing motion segments by reviewing existing stock footage; recommending and incorporating stock footage into script; and providing editing advice for video transitions and special effects, music selection, cutting stock footage, music, and titles, and text and graphics.

        (5) Verify the educational soundness, and technical accuracy, of the edited tape.

        (6) Obtain client approval of the edited tape.

    d. Ensure video materials submitted for production are instructionally sound, and meet all required specifications. Address these production standards during the production and post-production stages.

    e. The linear motion segments of the IMI are a key element to its training effectiveness. The VI/TSC or a commercial contractor usually performs videotape recording. These are professional VI personnel who know their jobs. Ensure it is communicated, and AV personnel understand, the AV needed for the IMI, and the specifications required of these AV.

    f. To meet video standards-

        (1) Ensure visuals meet established specifications.

        (2) Verify the scene lengths meet established standards.

        (3) Verify camera movement and orientation meets specifications.

        (4) Check that still frames are free of flicker.

        (5) Ensure special effects meet specifications.

        (6) Verify correct color selection.

    g. Video production standards are listed below:

        (1) Visuals.

            (a) Lighting standards include professional lighting techniques (e.g., fill lights and reflectors); correct exposure and balanced color; consistent application of lighting, exposure, and color balance; and related exterior scenes that use the same lighting conditions.

            (b) Subject standards include centering the important subject on the screen within the screen's 90 percent "safe action" area; framing the subject properly (large enough to portray pertinent details); sharply focus and properly position the subject; and not obscuring the subject by darkness, shadows, or background.

            (c) Shot standards include correct shot composition (i.e., not awkward or unintentionally humorous), and avoiding showing actors' backs, objects seeming to grow out of people's heads, or "chopped off" people appearing, because of a jump cut.

        (2) Scene Length. Scenes are to be no longer than 15 to 20 seconds. Change scenes every seven to nine seconds. Scene changes occur upon entrance of a person or item, or upon addition of text or special effect. Alter the camera distance or angle, and use smooth camera movement.

        (3) Camera Movement. Follows the action by panning, tilting, or zooming. The movement is smooth, timely, decisive, and precise execution. Avoids being early or late, hesitant, abrupt, or inaccurate. Avoids appearing rough or erratic, when mounted on moving vehicles.

        (4) Camera Orientation. Use orientation shots to begin each scene. The camera zooms in after exact location established. Cut to tighter shots, or use step stills, to show details.

        (5) Flicker. Still frames must be free of flicker.

        (6) Special Effects. Enhance understanding and visual interest by using arrows and circles, highlighting, and wipes, to move from scene to scene, and imply passage of time. Fade into, and dissolve out of, all motion sequences. Use split screens sparingly. Use separate screens when possible. Split screen must have a purpose. Separate information on the screen with a line.

        (7) Flashing Items. Use flashing or blinking words, arrows, or the item itself minimally, to emphasize importance. Use consistently (e.g., if a warning is flashed once, subsequent warnings must also flash, or blink). Objects flash or blink three to five times. Flashing must be even, and not frantic or disturbing. Refer to paragraphs 4-19a and b.

    h. If digital video is not the outcome of the production, ensure the video is digitized before authoring is started. Specify to the production personnel the type of digital video needed. Refer to IMI Implementing Instructions for the latest digital video standards.

6-14. Develop stand-alone videotapes (AV products). Scripts guide the content of the production, and determine the actions required of VI personnel to develop and produce the videotape. The detail of the script depends upon the complexity of the learning strategy used. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter VI-10. The following paragraphs provide guidelines for developing the script for videotape.

6-15. Write a product treatment.

    a. Generally, a treatment contains the concept, purpose, and learning objective(s) of the product, and is usually written by a scriptwriter. A treatment must provide a detailed, clear, informative description of every major event that is to occur in the program, and show how the events tie together. It includes identification of resource requirements, such as personnel, location, and equipment; and clearly describes to the approving authority what the program will provide.

    b. Follow the steps below to write a treatment.

        (1) Establish the product concept by conducting research, studying needs analysis, CATS, task analysis data, and working with SMEs.

        (2) Obtain technical input from the SMEs.

        (3) Obtain training or educational/training input from the training developer.

        (4) Write the treatment to explain the concept of the product's use; the requirement, purpose, and objective of the product; and outline what the production script will express or depict.

        (5) Staff the treatment.

        (6) Write the final treatment.

        (7) Obtain treatment approval, before proceeding with production.

6-16. Write a script.

    a. A script is the blueprint for developing the product. It is prepared from the approved final treatment by the scriptwriter, in coordination with the training developer and SMEs. It translates the treatment into a detailed guide, showing scenes, sequences, dialogue, narration, graphics, music displayed, camera angles, etc., required to develop the program. Descriptions of visual and audio requirements for each frame, or scene, are included. The script identifies production requirements, such as personnel, locations, and equipment to be used; and provides a detailed description of learning events, and their relationship to each other. It is prepared for managers that approve the production, and the production development team. A sample excerpt of a script is provided in table 6-4.

Table 6-4
Sample script

Video Description

Audio Dialogue

MS in an office with a lady (about 30) in a suit sitting at a desk and a 30 year old man standing.

Tony: What a pretty outfit.

Liz: What a sexist remark!

    b. There are three formats of scripts:

        (1) Text only. A text only format script may be in graphic and text, or animation format.

        (2) Graphic and text usually show a graphic depiction of scene on left; and narration, or dialogue, on right side of the page. It can be a photograph, hand-drawn sketch, or written description.

        (3) Animation relates sounds, such as syllables from a word, related to a specific action in a particular scene. Computer programs decrease need for this particular type of script.

    c. Preparing a script involves writing the dialogue/narration required for the ICW. Apply the following guidance when writing an audio script, or the audio portion of the AV script or storyboard, to make it easier for the narrator or actor(s) to record, or read, the audio.

        (1) Conduct research.

            (a) Review and study task analysis.

            (b) Review and study design decisions.

            (c) Review the TLO and ELOs to be trained.

            (d) Review the approved "final treatment."

        (2) Translate the approved final treatment and original idea into a draft script by-

            (a) Preparing in two-column format.

            (b) Confirming the training sequences.

            (c) Establishing continuity.

            (d) Determining graphic or visual sequences, to include any special effects needed or envisioned.

            (e) Detailing the dialogue and/or narration used.

            (f) Determining the graphic requirements.

            (g) Obtaining technical and educational inputs.

        (3) Staff the draft script.

            (a) Obtain educational and SME review comments.

            (b) Ensure desired visual and audio effects.

            (c) Verify visual consistency with script.

        (4) Staff the final script.

            (a) Obtain educational and SME review comments.

            (b) Ensure desired visual and audio effect.

            (c) Verify visual consistency with script

        (5) Finalize the script.

            (a) Recommend script reorganizations, ensuring a mandatory training sequence is maintained.

            (b) Edit and assemble the script.

            (c) Revise final product script based on staffing comments received from the SME, training developer, and client.

            (d) Maintain an effective mandatory training sequence.

        (6) Obtain manager(s') approval of final product script. (The training developer must approve the script for training sufficiency; the SME must approve the script for technical content, accuracy, and completeness; and the command authority must give script approval, before video production begins.)

6-17. Write a storyboard.

    a. Storyboards support the production of a script by providing a series of scenes in graphic-style format, tied to the associated narration, or dialogue, that depict the final production. It is an excellent tool for production planning and approvals. Instructors and writers may be required to assist a specialist in making, producing, and reviewing storyboards.

    b. There are a number of commercially available resources that can assist in the storyboard development procedure. Follow the steps below to write a storyboard:

        (1) Review the background documents.

        (2) Produce a drawing or photograph for key scenes in the script.

            (a) Assist in the production of the drawings or photographs.

            (b) Acquire the appropriate storyboard forms, or computer programs.

            (c) Sequence the graphics in training order.

            (d) Tie the narration, or dialogue, to its associated picture.

        (3) Staff the draft storyboards for comment and review.

            (a) Obtain technical input.

            (b) Obtain educational input.

            (c) Make required revisions to the draft storyboards.

        (4) Obtain manager(s) approval of the final storyboards.

6-18. Prepare storyboard videotape and AV products.

    a. Complete DD Form 1995 for production approval. (See para 3-4.)

    b. Produce the master videotape. (See para 13.)

    c. Verify the AV production meets production standards. (See app F.)

6-19. Develop the courseware prototype.

    a. When producing courseware that is expensive, in terms of time and dollars, it is critical that the spiral aspect of the SAT process be leveraged, and a prototype of a small segment of the courseware be produced, tested, revised, and retested, to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of the product. This paragraph presents guidelines for developing IMI prototype tests and lessons.

    b. Interactive multimedia instruction prototype purpose. A major part of instructional media design is a prototype(s) of the tests and lessons to be developed. There are a number of reasons for producing a prototype to include:

        (1) Prototypes are a proof of principle. Training developers can see a courseware segment as designed, and determine if it provides effective and efficient training/education. For example-

            (a) Color and design of the screen may sound good on paper, but look bad when actually viewed by the client.

            (b) Planned dramatic treatments, and motivational and continuity approaches may sound exciting, but actually detract from learning.

        (2) A prototype can serve as an aid to the developers and managers, allowing them to visualize the finished product.

        (3) Prototypes eliminate, or reduce, unproductive discussions between the training developer and SMEs, regarding interpretation of statements in the design documentation. Prototypes show exactly what the statement means. If any of these situations occur, the developer would have to modify everything under development, to provide the client with a suitable product.

    c. Interactive multimedia instruction prototype content. An IMI prototype includes-

        (1) A small segment of a lesson, up to a complete lesson.

        (2) A segment of a module, pre and posttest.

        (3) A segment, up to an entire lesson progress test.

    d. Interactive multimedia instruction prototype description. The prototype is an actual sample of the tests and lessons illustrating-

        (1) All user, screen design, and media conventions.

        (2) Training/branching and remediation/reinforcement strategies for tests and lessons.

        (3) Learner control features.

        (4) Typical learning activities with dramatic treatment, continuity, and motivational approaches.

        (5) Computer management and recordkeeping features used.

    e. Interactive multimedia instruction prototype guidelines. Ensure the prototype(s) lesson is the standard for all ongoing course development-

        (1) The prototype is not to exceed the team's ability, within the allotted time and training constraints.

        (2) Incorporate as many testing, gaming, simulation, and decisionmaking templates as reasonable, which were identified in the design, to be used by the developers throughout the development cycle.

        (3) Review all components of the prototype with the team members.

            (a) Finalize all conventions, standard frames, groups, and templates at this time.

            (b) Encourage comments and discussion so that any reservations are addressed before lesson development begins.

        (4) Incorporate requested changes or corrections, as appropriate.

        (5) Gain approval of specific narrators and background music.

        (6) Before proceeding, demonstrate the prototype for approval by higher-level management. Get at least directorate chief approval on this element.

        (7) Provide all team members with a copy of the approved prototype, for reference in constructing other lessons/tests.

    f. Prototype and lesson development. The basic steps involved in developing a prototype are listed below. Use the same steps during courseware development.

        (1) Define the scope of the program, and collect content to be included. Review the target audience description, and acquire the task analysis data for the tasks, skills, and knowledge(s) to be included in the prototype. List terminal and enabling learning objectives for inclusion in the prototype; identify types of content and verify content; and identify context of the content (before and after).

        (2) Set, and agree on, program standards (if not previously established).

        (3) Comply with the established courseware structure and requirements, to include menu structure, list of lessons, navigation options, available help functions, and program flowchart.

        (4) Determine an instructional and testing strategy for the program.

        (5) "Chunk" information into smaller segments.

        (6) Determine detailed learning activities for each segment (text, video, graphics, and animation).

        (7) Complete the following actions-

            (a) Document the designs in an instructional media design and prototype, following the guidelines provided in this reference.

            (b) Design instruction for each segment.

            (c) Design inserted questions, reviews, and summaries for each segment.

            (d) Design practice exercises and/or test items (criterion referenced) for larger units of instruction.

        (8) Constantly communicate with the imaging personnel and production crew, to fine-tune the design, to ensure it can be implemented.

        (9) Identify and involve SMEs at major milestones in developing the program, to include completion of storyboards for one topic; completion of video segment, graphics, etc.; completion of a prototype lesson; completion of tests; and completion of each lesson and/or module.


Chapter 7
Author, Validate, and Complete IMI

7-1. Introduction.

    a. This chapter addresses how to author and validate an IMI course, as specified in the IMI storyboards.

        (1) Authoring takes information from the storyboard, and formats it for delivery via computer.

        (2) When preparing IMI, be concerned with all production requirements, such as programming, developing templates, burning CD-ROM discs, or digitizing video, and preparing support materials, such as student workbooks, and reference materials.

        (3) The author of these materials must ensure the following factors were considered while storyboards were prepared:

            (a) Interaction-the action and reaction between the trainee and the IMI delivery system.

            (b) Continuity-the framework, common thread, or theme that provides cohesiveness to the entire lesson, module, and course.

            (c) Consistency-the agreement or harmony of the IMI's parts or features with one another.

            (d) Effectiveness-the decided, decisive, or desired result.

    b. The following paragraphs provide steps to author and validate IMI.

7-2. Author IMI.

    a. Ensure storyboards are approved before authoring starts. Productive ways to use the time awaiting approval are-

        (1) Learning and refreshing staff on the authoring system to be used.

        (2) Checking and updating the templates used to meet all the standards and conventions in the design documents.

        (3) Planning the most efficient way to produce the courseware.

    b. Below are general guidelines for selecting and using authoring systems.

        (1) The authoring system used should be a prepackaged, prompted authoring aid, with courseware templates, or a menu driven editor, designed to help the courseware developer create programs, without elaborate programming.

        (2) The authoring system should be analyzed for the following selection factors: capability to support instructional design; ease of implementation; hardware compatibility; use of existing software; cost; vendor support and reputation, and unlimited licensing right; and its ability to deliver and distribute courseware to meet needs.

        (3) Once a project is in process, do not use new releases of the development software and authoring system, unless the new release fixes a bug that is causing a major problem.

        (4) Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions for recommendation on authoring systems and their use.

    c. Software conversion programs or engines. Many storyboard programs have software conversion programs, or engines, that automatically generate screens (frames and pages), and import the various components from the storyboard database, directly into the authoring system.

    d. Templates. Use attainable templates from other projects, using the same authoring system, those supplied with the authoring system, or those provided by TRADOC that fit the projects' needs.

        (1) Modify existing templates, whenever practical, to meet the specific learning activity, rather than starting from scratch.

        (2) Ensure templates meet the latest TRADOC IMI standards and conventions, defined in the design documents.

        (3) Do extensive testing of all new templates before full implementation.

        (4) Make available to others any new templates or preprogrammed interactive objects developed for the project, and include instructions for their use.

        (5) Have only one copy of templates for developers' use. Make sure any earlier versions are not available.

        (6) Make templates generic to meet specific learning activities.

        (7) Limit the number of buttons on a template. Think of other means for the student to interact, such as drop down menus.

        (8) Ensure buttons on the group of templates used throughout a course are consistent, always in the same location, and easily understood.

        (9) Develop templates using preprogrammed interactive objects, rather than programming each screen display.

    e. It is a large task to keep track of media; cataloging and consolidating files is a big time-saver.

        (1) When developing media files, it is important to produce them in the file types designed in the TRADOC media standards, and give them the name indicated on the storyboard, so they can be imported without additional work.

        (2) Catalog media so others will know the production status, which media to use, and where to find it.

        (3) When each media file is started, produced, and completed, update its status. At a minimum, the status database should record type of media, file name, storyboard name, location, and the person who produced the media.

        (4) Store all digitized graphics, audio, and AV files in the appropriate database directories/folders. All files must be in the same directory/folder or subdirectory, for ease of automatic importing into the authoring system, and for use on the web.

    f. Initiate authoring. Complete all the media for one stand-alone section of the lesson, or a total lesson, before authoring is begun on that portion of the lesson. Otherwise, time will be lost going back and forth revising the courseware to fit the media elements. Overall, do not get too far into authoring the courseware before completing the media production, and getting SME technical review and approval.

    g. Efficient authoring. Divide authoring into logical pieces (lessons, and stand-alone sections of a lesson). Author and debug each piece. Prevent mistakes discovered in the first piece from being repeated in later ones. Before authoring a lesson or section of a lesson, make sure all of the media elements are approved, and ready to use.

    h. Authoring process. Any programming, branching, and hyperlinking requirements on the storyboards, which were not built into the templates, will have to be completed in the authoring system. Some storyboard programs generate reports of the programming required, or automatically transport this information into the authoring system as notes. The developer can then complete any additional programming in the authoring system.

    i. Authoring guidelines. Various authoring guidelines, what the guidelines mean, and the rationale for implementing the guidelines follow:

        (1) Develop templates or objects for recurring routines. Many IMI lessons will follow the same structure and function in a similar manner. Try to reuse as much code as possible, to reduce time. Develop template or interactive objects, and reuse them as needed.

        (2) Use the TRADOC AutoPlay Objects and procedures. If delivering the courseware via a CD-ROM, use the TRADOC AutoPlay Objects and procedures, so students will not have to learn a new access process as they go from one CD to another. Access TRADOC AutoPlay Objects at http://www.atsc.army.mil/itsd/imi/navigation.asp.

        (3) Develop object libraries. Group recurring screen elements (such as graphics that will appear in many lessons) into object libraries, for easy reuse and modification, to save time.

        (4) Use "built-in" CMI functions, if possible. Some IMI authoring systems have "built-in" CMI functions and routines to track data. Use these features to save time. Make sure the CMI functions keep CMI data independently of the courseware.

        (5) Avoid excess use of CMI capabilities. If the authoring system does not have built-in CMI features, and routines need developing for recordkeeping and data analysis, excessive capabilities are being used. Develop CMI to meet the requirements in the storyboard, and tailor back the design, if the programming system will not easily support it. The minimum data to collect is test result data, total score, percent score, and whether the student passed or failed, according to the training standards.

        (6) Standardize the file names for all CMI data. This allows for easy data consolidation and analysis across students and classes. Computer-managed instruction data must be stored externally from courseware data.

        (7) Keep good software documentation. One of the most important and costly aspects of IMI is maintenance. Detailed and accurate program documentation is critical to lesson maintenance. Keep lists of all program variables used, and indicate where they are, and what they are used for. Follow standard screen-naming conventions. Clearly identify any libraries used, and the specific items within the libraries. Establish controls to keep those items from being modified without coordination. Assign a single person to function as librarian. Configuration management is critical to success.

        (8) Maintain master copies of all program data. Keep a set of master lesson disks, and all lesson specifications, in one package.

        (9) Implement Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)/Electronics Industries Association (EIA) standard 12207 (IEEE/EIA 12207) for programs developed outside of an authoring system. Often, the authoring system will not support a function required for the IMI program, and an external program will have to be used. When external programs are used, their structure, documentation, and integration become important factors in the usability and support of the courseware. External programs must be well documented within the code itself. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/Electronics Industries Association 12207 outlines both the software development process, and the documentation required for DoD software.

        (10) If programming in an authoring system's internal language, try to program within a screen. Some authoring systems provide an internal programming language, to supplement the basic functions of the authoring tool. Programming within a screen will significantly reduce access times while running the lesson.

        (11) Ensure the integrity of student's files. Protect students' files, so that not just anyone can get access to their records. Files can be easily password-protected with most IMI software programs.

        (12) Establish the browser to display the courseware. Courseware may not play through all browsers. Provide either hotlinks to download the browser(s), or put the browser(s) on the CD-ROM or other storage medium for download. Make sure the browser is free. Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions for the latest browser requirements.

        (13) Formatively evaluate the IMI software before program within a screen. Even though most IMI developers and programmers take painstaking efforts to ensure the program's flawless execution, bugs can still exist. Programming flaws that cause unintentional directional flows, or unanticipated characters to appear, can cause a student to think the entire program is poorly designed.

    j. Install and uninstall programs. If downloading programs over the network (not played from the net), or storing on a CD-ROM or other storage media, carefully construct an install and uninstall program. Follow the guidelines below when designing the install and uninstall programs:

        (1) Provide for easy installation by using the TRADOC standard CD-ROM access icons, and install/uninstall procedures. This includes:

  • Always allowing the installer to designate where to install the courseware.
  • Checking for sufficient hard disk space.
  • Notifying the installer if there is insufficient space, and how much additional space is required.
  • Having the installation software check for the presence of hardware or software required to run the courseware; i.e., sound card, real media plug-in, etc.
  • Informing the user, and ensuring the courseware will run at a reduced speed, if hardware is not present.
  • Informing the user, and providing a link for software download, if software is not available.

The ICW must be easy to install, operate, and uninstall, or it will not be used. Using the standard procedures will allow students to go from one CD-ROM to another, without having to learn new access processes. It will save development time to use the standard programs and icons provided by TRADOC.

        (2) Provide for an easy way to uninstall the program, so that the appropriate training is removed from the user's computer by providing a dialog box confirming or canceling the user's intent, before removal of the training is initiated. The uninstall software will not remove any courseware management user's files. The ICW must be completely removed from the computer, so the next user will be able to install and operate the required training.

        (3) Store courseware management user's files apart from course files. Plan to store all files that hyperlink between one another in the same directory/folder, and media files (video, audio, etc.) in the same directory ,or in a subdirectory and subfolder. This convention enables the computer to quickly find the needed files.

7-3. Add computer-managed instructions requirements.

    a. While the hardware is first and foremost for training delivery, it also provides functional management of training courseware, and their respective use, within both the unit and the institution. Computer-managed instruction data will provide the Army with an automated and standard-training feedback system. Providing feedback to the organization, as well as the instructional designer and the student, on participant and course success, are an important part of course evaluation. One of the most common mistakes made in instructional development, is deciding on a course evaluation plan too late in the cycle. It is important to make critical decisions early, to ensure that the proper data is being kept, to judge the success of the training project.

    b. Use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Computer-managed instruction functions can-

        (1) Include a management administration system designed to track student performance over a period of time.

        (2) Provide information concerning performance trends.

        (3) Record individual and group performance data on tests and practice exercises.

        (4) Schedule training.

        (5) Provide support for other training management functions.

    c. Computer-management systems. Before designing the CMI for the IMI course, become familiar with-

        (1) The capabilities of the authoring software selected, to determine the kind of data collection and analysis that is possible within the course.

        (2) The command's designated course management system, or other Army management systems to interface with, for required data exchange.

    d. Army management systems. Major Army management systems are the Automated Instructional Management System-Redesign (AIMS-R), the TRADOC Educational Data System-Redesign (TREDS-R), and RDL.

        (1) AIMS-R objective system and the TREDS-R, or a comparable database system, will-

            (a) Permit appropriate agencies to track all actions, from enrollment, through course completion. These agencies include the individual's chain of command, the training approval authority, the quota source manager, the training proponents, ATSC, the installation training manager, and the DL classroom manager. Phase 2 will include students enrolled in self-initiated and self-development training with the ATSC programs.

            (b) Provide automation, student management, grade-book management, testing and evaluation of students, inventory management, worldwide distribution and printing of instructional and testing materials, and scheduling of classes, events, and resources, to include archival of historical records.

            (c) Interface with ASAT, Army Training Resource Requirements System, and Defense Civilian Personnel Data Systems through TRAIN, Total Army Personnel Data Base, and other various training support systems.

        (2) General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library.

            (a) The ATSC, in coordination with the proponents, will use the RDL to distribute digitized courses and reference materials via electronic media, such as CD-ROM, floppy diskettes, web-based training, or a combination of media.

            (b) Training development (task) proponents will load their approved products on to their DTAC when established. The ATSC will assist proponents in loading materials onto the RDL until the DTACs are connected to the RDL.

            (c) Provide on-line access to courseware through the RDL and the Internet. Note: These Army Systems are currently undergoing a redesign and reengineering, to conform to New Army Architecture and Data Standardization.

    e. Computer-managed instruction features are described below:

        (1) Course Management - Provides a catalog of available courseware and training support information with search capabilities, synopsis of courses, and enrollment requirements. This repository for digitized courseware is available to users Armywide via the Internet. Also a point-of-entry for the student to the course, often based on prerequisite requirements, pretest performance, or previously "bookmarked" location. Students should be able to leave a lesson and return to the same point at a later time.

        (2) Event Prerequisite - Allows the instructor to create, update, and review event prerequisites for a specified course, or collaborative activity.

        (3) Registration Enrollment - Permits on-line enrollments of students with determination that prerequisite requirements are met.

        (4) Student Management - Involves the control of a student throughout a specific course. It includes such activities as student enrollment, tracking student flow through the course, maintaining student records (e.g., training, grade-book, testing, academic counseling, and administrative actions), and collecting and providing student status data (e.g., graduation, attrition, discharge, etc.) to appropriate agencies.

        (5) Student Enrollment Information - Collection of student enrollment information on-line, that is accessible to students for review and update of their personal information.

        (6) Student Progress Management - Allows authorized instructor to track student progress through a course. The collection of data will include student log-on/log-off times, current status, review of tests and student answers, and student progress reports. Notices are sent to students, as a result of their activity or inactivity in registered courses, as well as completion certificates, or diploma, for courses completed.

        (7) Group Test Data - Allows the instructor to display, or print out, the number of students that have taken a particular test. Also prints out the highest and lowest percentage scores, test mean, median, and standard deviation; an item analysis that shows the number of students taking the test; and, by percentage, each question, the number of correct and incorrect responses, and the number of students that timed-out on that question.

        (8) Data Exchange - E-mail for sending and receiving student assignments, and downloading or uploading required materials.

        (9) Collaborative Activities - Schedules and provides access information for collaborative activities, such as chat rooms, net conferences, TNET presentations or conferences, and VTT sessions.

        (10) Help Desk - Place for students to post questions, request counseling, and report problems.

        (11) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - The capability to browse typical questions asked by students, course managers, or administrators, with the associated answer.

        (12) Custom Reports - Allows the instructor to print custom, formatted reports from selective elements and variables within the CMI program database.

        (13) Interface with Other Programs - Interchange of information with other database management systems allows the instructor to leave the program, and execute other standard data analysis packages.

7-4. Prepare adjunctive materials.

    a. Adjunctive materials are printed reference materials, used in conjunction with the IMI lessons, to instruct a training objective. Course managers, instructors, and students use them. Prepare draft adjunctive print materials concurrent with courseware development. Note: Limit the use of adjunctive material whenever possible. Instead, place the required information on the CD-ROM or Internet.

    b. Types of adjunctive materials.

        (1) IMI uses some or all of the following adjunctive materials-

            (a) Instructor's guide.

            (b) IMI manager's guide.

            (c) Student guide.

            (d) Student workbook.

            (e) Practical exercise or laboratory sheets.

            (f) Home assignments sheet.

            (g) Student handouts.

            (h) Reference materials.

        (2) Adjunctive materials, normally in printed format, are maps and wiring diagrams.

    c. Procedure. Follow the steps below to prepare adjunctive materials:

        (1) Review the lesson.

        (2) Identify the requirement for adjunctive material by-

            (a) Determining whether the material can be included on the CD-ROM, or linked to the Internet.

            (b) Determining the type of adjunctive material needed.

        (3) Order or download digital or print reference materials that already exist from the APD Electronic Publications and Forms database.

        (4) Write the adjunctive materials.

        (5) Obtain approval of the edited adjunctive material.

        (6) Validate the approved adjunctive material, in conjunction with the courseware.

    d. Interactive multimedia instruction manager's guide. Prepare an IMI manager's guide for each course. The guide-

        (1) Is a clear, well-defined set of instructions for effectively managing the IMI.

        (2) Specifically addresses each lesson and module.

        (3) Is placed on-

            (a) The CD-ROM, or linked to the Internet as a main menu selection, with security measures to prevent student access.

            (b) A separate computer diskette, with appropriate security instructions.

    e. Contents. An IMI manager's guide contains the five sections shown below:

        (1) User characteristics contains prerequisites, education levels, physical or personal requirements, and administrative constraints.

        (2) Course overview contains course map, module, and associated lesson descriptions, TLOs and ELOs (including associated task numbers), completion criteria, academic time limits for each lesson, and retake limits.

        (3) Equipment requirements include instructional material, training aids, consumables, peripherals, and networking.

        (4) Tests include course evaluation plan, identifying each required test according to module, lesson, and objectives; synopsis of each test; all equipment and materials required for testing; test administration (i.e., scoring methodology, and list of correct answers, with explanations for correct and incorrect answers); and use of computer capabilities for test evaluation; and report generation.

        (5) General administration - Includes monitoring responsibilities, procedures for small group learning, recommended procedures for handling trainee differences, basic maintenance and troubleshooting procedures, instructions for making back-up computer diskettes, safety precautions, and management of CMI data.

7-5. Debug, review, and test courseware.

    a. After authoring, test and debug the courseware thoroughly (look for execution errors).

    b. Test and debug hints. Do not wait until the course is complete before testing and debugging.

        (1) Test smaller courseware sections as completed, to fix mistakes before they appear throughout the courseware.

        (2) Keep track of each version of the courseware, and keep the versions separate. With each addition to the courseware, it is always possible to encounter a big programming error that is difficult to fix. Having the last working version accessible will save time.

    c. Check content and function. To make sure the courseware works, check both the content added, and how the courseware functions. Check:

        (1) Objects. Check the look and placement of every visual object on the screen. Check every interactive object, to make sure it functions properly, and links to the correct location.

        (2) Questions, practical exercises, and tests. Check all possible answers, and make sure remediation and feedback are correct, and match.

        (3) Video and animation. Play every video and animation element, to make sure it displays in the right location, is consistent, has the correct audio level, and has the elements intended for playback (play, pause, stop, replay, etc.).

        (4) Color. Look for palette shifting (flashing).

        (5) Narration. Check for audio level and comprehension.

        (6) Scoring of tests. Make sure test scores are accurate, and displayed when and where intended.

        (7) Installation, loading, and exiting processes. Make sure the program installs correctly, plays after installation, and has intended exit features.

        (8) Collection of CMI data. Make sure CMI data is collected and retained, after the student exits.

d. Debug procedures. Keep careful records to document each bug as it is discovered.

        (1) Before a bug is marked as fixed, get a sign off from the person that documented the bug, those who fixed the bug, and anyone that reviewed the bug.

        (2) Make team decisions on which bugs will be delayed until the next version.

    e. Peer/team reviews. The lesson developers should review, debug, and make all changes, prior to having others on the team review the lesson. (Some teams have quality assurance personnel set aside for this purpose.) Have one person review for content, another for function problems, and another for standards and convention. Use a review checklist (see app K, Checklist 9).

    f. Corrections. Hold all comments, and correct at one time, then repeat the review cycle.

    g. Hardware checks. Verify the courseware will work on the minimal established hardware. If the courseware does not work with these requirements, then the courseware requirements need to be modified.

    h. Operating systems checks. Determine the minimum Windows configuration, and check the courseware on that configuration, and all later versions of the operating system. If the courseware is played on other operating systems (Macintosh or UNIX), do the same with these operating systems. It is not always possible, or practical, to check it on every system, but do as much checking as possible.

    i. Browser checks. Check the courseware playing on all recommended browsers.

    j. Prevalidation checks. Courseware will probably never be perfect, but a point of diminishing returns is reached. Although validation deadlines are scheduled, ensure the courseware meets the following criteria, before starting validation:

        (1) The courseware should meet all the specified design decisions.

        (2) All the branching and logic in the course should work.

        (3) There should be no missing pieces.

        (4) Text placement, colors, and format should be consistent, and grammar should be clean.

        (5) The course should be good enough to show off.

7-6. Validate the courseware.

    a. Validation is an essential step in the development of all training materials. The validation process will determine if the instructional material(s) actually teaches the objectives. Therefore, validate IMI before it is duplicated and distributed. Validate the IMI using a sample of the target population, and the actual computer equipment to be used to deliver the courseware. See TRADOC Reg 350-70, chapter III.

    b. Validation is the process that tests whether the courseware, including IMI materials, is effective, and trainees have mastered the learning objectives. The three parts to the validation process are-

        (1) Verification of the IMI; i.e., operability.

        (2) Individual trials to test the courseware, to ensure accuracy of program flow, content, and media components.

        (3) Group validation uses statistical methodology to determine if the instructional and learning objectives of the IMI courseware are met (i.e., the course is valid).

    c. Procedures. Follow the steps below to validate the IMI:   

        (1) Determine validation requirements (see para 2-6).

        (2) Develop validation plan (see para 2-7).

        (3) Conduct individual trial validation (see para I-1).

        (4) Determine criticality standards (see para I-2).

        (5) Plan and coordinate for validation (see para I-3).       

        (6) Conduct validation (see para I-4).

        (7) Determine which validation method to use (see para I-5).

        (8) Procedures for using the fixed sample method of validation (see para I-6).

        (9) Procedures for using the sequential sample method of validation (see para I-7).

        (10) Prepare the validation report, and obtain approval (see para I-8).

7-7. Develop a multimedia master material label package. As part of the final IMI master materials package, develop and submit labels for the CD-ROM to ATSC for mastering, replication, and distribution. Follow the specifications in appendix H to develop master material label packages.

7-8. Submit IMI master materials.

    a. The proponent for maintenance of the IMI should retain a copy of the production file. Provide three copies of the IMI master materials to the proponent courseware manager at Commander, U.S. Army Training Support Center, ATTN: ATIC-ITSC-CM, Building 2789, Harrison Loop, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5166. See appendix F, paragraph F-5, and appendix H, for lists of materials that must accompany the IMI master materials package.

    b. Once the IMI has been validated, and all required revisions resulting from the validation are completed, submit the final IMI master materials package, as outlined in appendix F, paragraph F-5, and appendix H, for final approval and Armywide replication and distribution to: Commander, U.S. Army Training Support Center, ATTN: ATIC-ITSC-CM, Building 2789, Harrison Loop, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5166.

7-9. Maintain the IMI.

    a. After the IMI is submitted to ATSC for Armywide replication and distribution, there is a continuing requirement to maintain the IMI once fielded. This maintenance includes updating the courseware, and keeping its production files current.

    b. Update IMI materials. Base IMI updates on user feedback and school evaluations. These sources provide information on user performance, and IMI effectiveness. In addition, changes in threat, doctrine, organization, training, and materiel may require IMI revisions. Follow the steps below to update the IMI:

        (1) Evaluate the use of the IMI.

            (a) Review school evaluation reports.

            (b) Review other verbal, or written, IMI evaluations.

        (2) Evaluate impact of changes in mission, collective task, job, or individual task analysis.

        (3) Revise the IMI when needed.

Note: If the IMI is revised, perform previously described validation procedures.


Appendix A
References

Section I
Required Publications

DoDI 1322.20
Development and Management of Interactive Courseware (ICW) for Military Training

DoD MIL-PERF 29612B
Performance Specification Training Data Products (Available on the Defense Training Standards Working Group website: http://www.dtswg.org/PDF Files/29612B.pdf)

DoD MIL-STD-188-198A
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) Image Compression for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (Available at http://www.ismc.nima.mil/ntb/baseline/docs/188_198a/jpeg.pdf)

DoD MIL-STD-2301A
Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) Implementation Standard for the National Imagery Transmission Format Standard (Available at http://www.ismc.nima.mil/ntb/baseline/docs/2301a/2301a_5jun98.pdf)

DoD Handbook, MIL-HDBK-29612-1A
Guidance for Acquisition of Training Data Products and Services (Available on the Defense Training Standards Working Group website: http://www.dtswg.org/PDF Files/-1 hdbk.pdf)

DoD Handbook, MIL-HDBK-29612-2A
Instructional Systems Development/Systems Approach to Training and Education (Available on the Defense Training Standards Working Group website: http://www.dtswg.org/PDF Files/-2 hdbk.pdf)

DoD Handbook, MIL-HDBK-29612-3A
Development of Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) (Available on the Defense Training Standards Working Group website: http://www.dtswg.org/PDF Files/-3 hdbk.pdf)

DoD Handbook, MIL-HDBK-29612-4A
Glossary for Training (Available on the Defense Training Standards Working Group website: http://www.dtswg.org/PDF Files/-4 hdbk.pdf)

DoD Handbook, MIL-HDBK-9660B
DoD-Produced CD-ROM Products (Available on Defense Information Systems Agency website: http://www-library.itsi.disa.mil/mm_odtswg/dod_mm_odt_doc/mh9660b.html)

AR 25-1
Army Information Management

DA Pam 25-91
Visual Information Procedures

TRADOC Reg 350-70

Systems Approach to Training Management, Processes, and Products

Data Item Description 81520 (DI-SESS-81520B)

Instructional Media Design Package (Available on the Defense Training Standards Working Group website: http://www.dtswg.org/PDF Files/81520B.pdf)

Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) Implementing Instructions

SMPTE 12M-1999
Television, Audio and Film - Time and Control Code (Available for ordering on the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers website: http://www.smpte.org/standards/)

SMPTE 170M-1999
Television - Composite Analog Video Signal - NTSC for Studio Applications (Available for ordering on the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers website: http://www.smpte.org/standards/)

SMPTE 230M-1996
Television Analog Recording - 1/2-in Type L - Electrical Parameters, Control Code and Tracking Control (Available for ordering on the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers website:

http://www.smpte.org/standards/)

Section II
Related Publications

AR 140-1
Mission, Organization and Training

AR 350-1
Army Training

AR 380-5
Department of the Army Information Security Program

AR 611-3
Army Occupational Survey Program (AOSP)

AR 621-6
Army Learning Centers

DA Pam 5-25
Army Modernization Information Memorandum (AMIM)

DA Pam 25-30
Consolidated Index of Army Publications and Blank Forms

DA Pam 350-59
Army Correspondence Course Program Catalog

DA Pam 350-100
Extension Training Materials Consolidated MOS Catalog

DA Pam 611-3
Army Occupational Survey Program Questionnaire Administration

Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)

FM 25-4
How to Conduct Training Exercises

TRADOC Reg 25-73
Acquisition of Information Technology by TRADOC Organizations and Installations

TRADOC Reg 350-6
Initial Entry Training (IET) Policies and Administration

TRADOC Pam 25-71
Standards for Electronic Staffing, Publishing, and Archiving

DISA Multimedia Extensions to the DoD Minimum Desktop Configurations (Available on Defense Information Systems Agency website: http://www-library.itsi.disa.mil/jr8300/jieo8301.html)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)/Electronics Industries Association (EIA) standard, IEEE/EIA 12207, Standard for Information Technology-Software Life Cycle Processes (Available from Document Automation and Production Service, Standardization Order Desk, 700 Robbins Avenue, Building 4/D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094)

Section III
Referenced Forms

DD Form 1995
Visual Information (VI) Production Request and Report

DD Form 2568
Defense Instructional Technology Information System (DITIS) Report

DD Form 2830
General Talent Release

DD Form 2831
General Release Where Talent Fee or Other Remuneration or Recompense Accrues to the Participant

DD Form 2832
Release Granting the U.S. Government Permission to Photograph or Otherwise Record the Visual Image or Sound of Private Property

DD Form 2833
Release Granting the U.S. Government Permission t Record and Produce Program Material Transmitted by Educational or Commercial Broadcast Stations

GPO Form 952
U.S. Government Printing Office Desktop Publishing - Disk Information
(available on http://www.gpo.gov/procurement/ditsg/forms.html)

TRADOC Form 888-R
Basis of Issue Plan


IMI Source Materials Software and Equipment Requirement
B-1. Overview.

    a. Follow the general guidelines below for using IMI as an instructional delivery system.

        (1) Use IMI to gather a large collection of multimedia material, such as slide collections, still photographs, or a mixture of still-frame, and motion sequences, on film or video.

        (2) Consider IMI training when a large number of learners are distributed over time and place.

        (3) Interactive multimedia instruction may be applied when instructors with subject matter expertise are in short supply.

        (4) Consider using IMI applications when it is necessary to allow students to practice a skill and a simulator, or when real equipment is impractical or unavailable for this training.

        (5) Interactive multimedia instruction can provide a safe, yet realistic, simulation of dangerous activities and situations.

        (6) Interactive multimedia instruction is a particularly suitable delivery system, when training requires continuous practice, or retraining.

        (7) Interactive multimedia instruction can be a very useful delivery method in training problem-solving and decisionmaking skills.

        (8) When a training situation is such that students vary in experience, learning style, and skill level, IMI instruction can provide different types and levels of instruction to different students.

    b. Refer to the remaining paragraphs to determine IMI technical issues-source material, software, and equipment requirements source materials for IMI:

        (1) Audio, video, and imagery source materials for IMI, paragraph B-2.

        (2) Digital audio, paragraph B-3.

        (3) Digital video, paragraph B-4.

        (4) Graphics and imagery, paragraph B-5.

        (5) Animation, paragraph B-6.

        (6) Interactive multimedia instruction software support tools, paragraph B-7.

        (7) Interactive multimedia instruction equipment, paragraph B-8.

B-2. Audio, video, and imagery source materials for IMI. Graphics, images, and video presentations are important parts of multimedia computer programs. Growing demands for interactivity, and for the means to manipulate data, are spurring progress in the digital capture and storage of the data. Capabilities of capturing and storing digital data include:

    a. Capture devices to digitize inputs (requires installing a capture card).

    b. Data manipulation, editing devices, and software programs (readily available for many specialized applications and processes).

    c. Computers can store, copy, and distribute image data, without degradation of the data. Every image is as clear as the first. Displays output of converted data image directly to the computer screen, for inclusion in multimedia programs, or through other playback devices such as monitors, printers, or to networks.

B-3. Digital audio.

    a. Audio. Sound is used in IMI to convey information that does not lend itself solely to a textual or graphical environment. For some training subject areas, the use of sound is critical for full achievement of learning objectives.

    b. Human hearing. The hearing range of most humans is from approximately 20 hertz (Hz), at the low end of the frequency spectrum, to between 15 and 20 kilohertz (kHz) at the upper end. A hertz is a unit of measure associated with frequency, and is equal to one cycle per second; a kilohertz is 1,000 hertz.

    c. Audio technology. Sound, which occurs naturally as an analog waveform, can be converted to digital signals, recorded, and stored as a file accessible by a computer. This process is called digitizing. The computer program then controls the file. It can be edited, manipulated, and accessed for near-instantaneous output. The output is converted from digital signals, back to analog signals, and played through output devices, such as speakers. The process is outlined below:

        (1) How Audio is Digitized. Sound is digitized through a process called sampling. At small, discrete time intervals, the computer takes a sample, or reading, of the waveform, and records the amplitude. The number of samples taken within a second is the "sampling rate." The more samples taken during a second, the greater the sampling rate. As the sampling rate increases, so does the fidelity, or the faithfulness to the reproduction of the original audio.

        (2) Audio Quality. The higher the sampling rate, the better the quality of the sound. Note, however, that sampling higher rates (taking more samples per second) requires greater storage space. The controlling factor should be the quality of sound needed to meet the goals of the education or training. The sampling rate should be twice the highest frequency required. Thus, if a 4 kHz frequency is desired for a voice application, the sampling rate should be 8 kHz or higher.

        (3) Technology Quick-look. Digital audio is now a standard of multimedia systems. The addition of sound, to the visual media capabilities of the computer-based systems, is possible because technological progress in Analog-to-Digital Converters and Digital-to-Analog Converters has made digital audio possible; and audio recorded as numeric values allows digital computers to capture, manipulate, store, and distribute sound. Significant advantages of the digital audio system are: quality of sound is maintained, and control of the audio media is now possible as an integral medium of the computer-based multimedia system.

    d. Digital audio in multimedia. Digital audio adds the true sound dimension to multimedia, in its many and varied uses, for educators and trainers. Potential uses are essentially limited only by the creativity of the instructor and course designer. Paragraph 4-19c discusses more design principles of when, and how, to use audio. Examples of applications and capabilities of digital audio are provided below:

        (1) Computer Control. With digitized sound, a computer treats a sound file just as a text file. Editing sound files is similar to editing in word processing programs. Precise control of quality sound delivered as part of multimedia programs gives the IMI designer, and the classroom instructor, greater flexibility in making instruction effective.

        (2) Sound-critical Subject Areas. Most education and training programs, that cover subjects in which sound is a critical factor, are enhanced by the use of digital audio. Some examples are language training (including pronunciation drills by students); diagnosing mechanical operations by the sounds produced, such as jet engine runs, and motor vehicle tuning; providing audible feedback to student inputs, such as simulated radio transmissions to aircrew members rehearsing missions; and using more of the senses (students retain more; but do not overuse).

        (3) Recording Inputs. Instructors and students can record their own voices or sound inputs on the computer system, storing them for future reference, or for providing immediate feedback, or practice.

        (4) Computer Presentations in the Classroom. Computer-controlled presentations, in the classroom or other audience environment, now include audio as well as visual elements. The computer system becomes a versatile presentation tool for the instructor, replacing other less reliable and unsynchronized systems.

        (5) Repurposing Videodisc Programs. Repurposing videodiscs presents a problem in that the audio on the disc is tied to the video and cannot be changed. By implementing digital audio, instructors can use existing video segments and add customized audio to correspond with learning objectives.

        (6) Speech Therapy. Speech and language therapists can use audio programs to help people with speech impairments. Speech therapy programs digitize and analyze verbal characteristics such as pitch, loudness, and intonation. They also provide exercises on pronunciation, pitch, and speech timing.

        (7) Music. Digital audio capability on computers has quickly become an important means of creating and teaching music. Major advancements made possible by musical representation standards are covered below. Digitizing music will generally require greater sampling rates due to the greater frequency range of the source audio. Sampling rates of at least 11 or 12 kHz and preferably up to 22 kHz are recommended.

        (8) Additional Considerations for Music. An international standard protocol for electronic music devices, called Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) (pronounced "mid-ee"), has been developed. Musical Instrument Digital Interface allows musical instruments, such as electronic keyboards, to be connected directly to a computer. Musical Instrument Digital Interface is not digital audio, but a means of providing input that can be recorded digitally.

    e. Examples of frequency ranges. Figure B-1 shows the frequency ranges of human hearing and typical audio-based media.

Figure B-1. Frequency ranges of some media and human hearing in kHz

    f. Disc storage requirements. Decisions about the quality of digital sound also relate to available storage space. Table B-1 illustrates the trade-off between sampling rates and storage requirements.

Table B-1
Sampling
rates/storage requirements trade-offs

# of Channels

Sample size

Sample rate

Recommended for-

File Size Ratios for 1 Second of Sound (Kilobytes)

Mono

8-bit

11.025 kHz

Voice

11

Mono

16-bit

22.05 kHz

Music

44

Stereo

8-bit

44.1 kHz

Not Recommended

88

Stereo

16-bit

88.2 kHz

Not Recommended

176.4

    g. Hardware and software considerations. Hardware and software issues to consider related to digital audio in an IMI system are provided below:

        (1) Audio Recording Requirements - Requires installing an audio card, microphone, editing software, and microphone input level adjustment hardware or software.

        (2) Audio Playback Requirements - Playback machines must have cards/peripherals compatible with Windows .wav files and plug-in for streaming audio.

        (3) File Compression - Currently not recommended. Requires a compression/decompression (codec) software for playback.

        (4) Speaker and Headphones - Required for input and output. Most are externally added to system.

        (5) Microphones - May be built-in or be externally connected.

    h. Advantages and disadvantages of digital audio. Digital audio offers many features for computer-controlled sounds, highlighted below:

        (1) Random access. Digital audio enables audio to be retrieved and played instantly (on the order of milliseconds). In most systems, to access the audio, the user simply enters a "Play" command followed by the name of the file.

        (2) Ease of editing. Audio files are stored with a file name, just like other computer files. Delete or replace audio files using normal file command utilities. Tools enable users to cut and paste sounds to edit narration. The process is as easy as using a word processor.

        (3) Cost. Moderate-cost, good-quality digital audio computer cards are normally part of current computers for sale.

        (4) Flexibility. Digital audio (as opposed to analog audio on a videodisc, audiotape, or videotape) is not tied to a particular visual segment. Therefore, play digital audio in conjunction with any segment of computer-generated visual images, if desired.

        (5) Limited Only by Storage Space. There is no limit to the amount of digital audio, other than that imposed by the amount of storage space available.

        (6) Large Storage Requirements. Audio files require a large amount of disk storage space; one megabyte for 180 seconds of mono sound sampled at 5 kHz; one megabyte for 45 seconds sampled at 22 kHz.

        (7) Large Memory Requirements. Load audio files into RAM first, before playing. A large amount of RAM is essential for quality playback.

        (8) Difficult to Synchronize. Because audio files are usually loaded into RAM before they are heard, the amount of time needed to play a file fluctuates, according to file size. This variation makes it very difficult to coordinate the audio with motion video. Synchronization with nontime-based formats, such as animation, is difficult. Streaming audio may alleviate this.

        (9) Streaming Audio. A technique for transferring audio for processing as a steady and continuous stream. This is a great technique for web-based training. Most browsers now have enhancement software with a Real Player for streaming RealAudio files. In order to include RealAudio streams, two files are needed-a RealAudio file (.RA extension), that contains all the data, and a RealAudio metafile (.RAM extension), which points to the data. Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions for the recommended audio file delivery formats.

B-4. Digital video.

    a. The digitizing of video images represents a major advancement in computer technology, an advancement of great use to educators and trainers. The digital capture and use of video images requires converting analog signals to digital data, and the compression of that data into a usable format. A review of analog and digital issues, as they relate to video, is useful at this point. Table B-2 identifies important aspects of analog and digital systems applied to video. Refer to paragraph 4-19b(2) on when and how to use video. A definition of the two formats is provided in the glossary.

Table B-2
Contrasting video technologies

Analog

Digital

Materials are in continuous form. Data is in wave form, cycling, and flowing.

Views everything in discrete individual values.

Represents materials as continuous electrical signals.

Represents analog materials by sampling, recording precise values at each sampled point, and presenting the series of data points as very close approximations of the natural images.

Analog data can have any degree of brightness, and infinite numbers of colors, shades, and values.

Digital data are precise values; each represented by a combination of on/off electrical impulses. An example of a limitation: Some Video Graphics Array boards are limited to 256 colors; therefore, video cannot be displayed with continuous color changes. Some banding of colors will be apparent.

Fixed sizes, bandwidth, and aspect ratio.

Variable sizes, resolution, and aspect ratios.

    b. Facts about digital video.

        (1) Digitizing video. To digitize video from a camcorder, videotape, videodisc, or broadcast television, the input signal must be processed through a digitizing card added to the computer, or through a peripheral. This converts the analog video signals into digital bits of information for each pixel (picture element) of the computer screen. The software that comes with the digitization cards controls the process. File video images from the screen to the hard disk (which requires a large storage space), or output for playback or transmission to other devices, such as a printer.

        (2) Difficulties in digitizing video. The difficulties still challenging the industry in the digitization of video are in the following areas:

            (a) Acceptable range of colors and shades. Limited variation in colors and shades makes digital images appear to not blend well. Some images appear to have sharp, striped edges.

            (b) Sufficient memory and storage capability. Digital images (and sound) require large amounts of memory for processing and storage of digital data. The current compromise of recording data at lower quality levels is not always satisfactory.

            (c) Data transfer rates. Large digital files are difficult to display on the computer screen at the standard rate of 30 Frames Per Second (FPS), the accepted "full-motion" rate.

            (d) Current digital video standards allow a large range of screen sizes, resolutions, and aspect ratios.

        (3) The benefits of digitizing video.

            (a) Error-free format. Digital systems, based on few discrete values (usually 1 and 0), can reproduce and transmit data, error-free.

            (b) Potential for interactivity. Digital systems, incorporating the excellent control capabilities of the computer, provide more intricate branching and integration possibilities. The result is a largely individually tailored system. The user is given a high degree of control.

            (c) Ease of manipulation. Digital data may be resized; repositioned; the color modified, and duplicated, with relative ease, and without the high costs of analog video editing equipment.

            (d) Durability. Digital data can be reproduced without any loss of quality. No "noise" ("snow" in video or "hiss" in audio) is introduced into copies. This is important when transmitting data over a network, such as in networked classrooms, and LANs at training facilities, or between them and students across the installation.

        (4) Streaming video. Streaming technologies are becoming increasingly important with the growth of the web-based training, because most users do not have fast enough access to download large audio, video, and animation files quickly. With streaming, the client browser, or plug-in, starts displaying the data, before the entire file has been transmitted. RealVideo by Real Networks is one of the most common streaming video formats. Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions for the recommended video streaming format.

    c. Steps in producing video, for use on a CD-ROM, are provided below:

        (1) Plan.

            (a) How it is going to be used.

            (b) Window size for viewing.

            (c) Playback rate.

            (d) Video file formats.

            (e) Naming convention.

        (2) Shoot video.

            (a) Quality of video source.

            (b) Video format for source video.

            (c) Quality of audio.

            (d) Lighting.

            (e) Color.

            (f) Camera techniques.

        (3) Capture and digitize video source.

            (a) Use high-quality video playback equipment as a capture video source (Recommend S-Video).

            (b) Digital Time Base Corrector use.

            (c) Setting up the video capture.

            (d) Hard disk management.

            (e) Avoid dropping frames.

            (f) Audio capture.

        (4) Compress video.

            (a) Interleaving the audio and video.

            (b) Choosing the right codec.

            (c) Streaming video.

    d. Video planning issues. When starting any project, some basic issues need to be addressed:

         (1) Planning issues.

            (a) Use of the video (i.e., motivation; review; detail, clarity, and degree of motion needed).

            (b) Size of video image needed. The larger the window size, the larger the video image file needs to be; the larger video image dictates how much space is needed on the hard drive to actually produce the image.

        (2) Capabilities of target computer.

            (a) Number of colors target computer can produce.

    • If an image is produced that requires 16 million colors, and the target machine will only show 256 colors, only 256 colors will be available. The teaching point will be lost.

            (b) Speed of target computers' CD-ROM player (1x, 2x, 4x, etc.).

    • Theoretically, a single-speed (1x) CD-ROM will transfer data at 150 kilobytes (KB) per second; a double-speed (2x) player will transfer data at 300 KB per second; 10x at 1,500 KB per second.
    • In actual practice, the speeds are at least 10 percent lower.
    • Once the player speed is known, budget a data transfer rate of at least 10 percent less than the published speed.

            (c) Speed of target computers' microprocessor (60 megahertz (MHz), 90 MHz, 120 MHz, etc.). The slower the speed of the microprocessor chip, or central processing unit (CPU), the slower the computer can decode and display what is on the CD-ROM.

            (d) Video file format to use.

    • Audio Video Interleave (AVI) - Video for Windows. Audio Video Interleave is the file format used by Microsoft Video. The file extension is always ".AVI."
    • Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). Moving Picture Exports Group is an international standard commonly used for video games, compact disc-interactive, and video CDs. A MPEG video will deliver the best quality video and audio.
    • Streaming video. RealVideo is the most common streaming video format used to play video over the Internet (RealAudio, RAM). Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions for the recommended video file delivery and archiving formats.

            (e) Naming convention to be used. Ensure no two files on the CD-ROM have the same file name. To ensure playback on MS Windows 3.1 computers, make sure all file names are no longer than eight characters, with a three-character extension. File name must not have hyphens, spaces, commas, backslashes, or periods (except the period that separates the name from the extension).

    e. Shoot the video. Follow the suggestions provided below for creating high-quality, compressed video, and help avoid situations that can make the creation of the video more difficult. Also, refer to paragraph 6-14 for video production guidance.

        (1) Why quality source video. The video source is "run through" a piece of software that performs a compression. If there are "artifacts" on the video source (color bleeding for example), the compression software will interpret this as "noise," and attempt to compress it. The resultant video, with this "noise," will waste precious CPU cycles and disk space.

        (2) Video format for source video. Capture the source video using a high-quality videotape format. The best video format to use is component or S-VHS, or better. Component video formats, from highest to lowest quality, include-

            (a) Betacam SP.

            (b) Hi8.

            (c) Super-VHS.

        (3) Use quality microphones for audio recording. You can hear the difference between a cheap microphone, and one that costs $2,000. The noise and distortion, picked up by the microphone, will be amplified, not masked or removed, by all subsequent processing.

        (4) Lighting. Use enough light. Use natural light, when possible. Avoid fluorescent light. Use a reflector to bounce light onto the subject

        (5) Color. Avoid saturated colors. Avoid extremely thin horizontal or vertical lines, and adjacent areas of high contrast.

        (6) Camera techniques. Use a tripod. Make the camera invisible. Only use zoom and pan when absolutely necessary. Use close-ups.

    f. Video capture techniques. To optimize the video quality and performance:

        (1) Use high-quality video playback equipment as the capture video source. Consumer model camcorders provide a great signal when shooting live, but some models do not play back as well from recorded videotape. When digitizing from videotape, it is better to use a high-quality editing deck.

        (2) Choose Separated Video (S-Video). If the video camera offers a choice between composite and S-Video formats, choose S-Video. Connect the S-Video output from the video camera, to the S-Video input on the video digitization card.

        (3) Use a digital time base corrector. A time base corrector, between the source video deck and the video digitizing board, can correct signal deficiencies. Inadequate synchronization signals appear as tearing along the top or bottom edge of the video capture window.

        (4) Before starting the capture, read the documentation of the capture card. Know what you are doing!

        (5) Maximize the performance of the hard disk for capture.

            (a) Defrag the hard disk.

            (b) Contiguous free disk space helps avoid dropped frames.

            (c) Avoid allocating disk space in the capture files that does not get used. Two ways to create files that capture video are:

    • Create a new capture file each time a video clip is captured.
    • Create one large capture file, with all the video clips into it, and save each clip as a separate file.

            (d) Override the default capture file size and set it to 1 MB. If more than 1 MB is captured, the capture program should continue to write the video to the hard disk, until capturing is stopped. At the end of the capture, the file will be exactly as large as it needed to be.

            (e) Always capture the video clips into the same capture file, then use the capture program to save each clip under a different name. Each file saved from the capture file will be exactly the size of the video last captured. This technique is convenient, because each clip captured will have at least simple editing performed, such as trimming a few frames, or interleaving the audio and video.

        (6) Adjust video source settings. If the appearance of the captured video is unsatisfactory, adjust the incoming signal using the Brightness, Contrast, Saturation, and Tint controls in the Video Source menu. For most video captures, the default settings are correct. Noticeable problems with the appearance of the captured signal are most likely to be the analog video signal itself, and not the capture board.

        (7) Preview video signal. When capturing, the preview may appear slowly or even freeze; this is normal, and does not mean that frames are being dropped. To maximize the speed with which the preview appears, set the Microsoft Windows display to 256 colors. The Windows display has no effect on the capture quality of video.

        (8) Avoid dropping frames. During the capture of analog video on a computer workstation, dropped frames refers to analog video frames that were dropped by the workstation, because it was unable to digitize the analog fast enough to keep up with the analog video rate.

            (a) Add more memory to the computer (recommend at least 64 MB).

            (b) Use a faster microprocessor.

            (c) Use a bigger, faster hard disk, with at least 1 gigabyte free, that has an access time of at least 10 milliseconds, and 1 MB per second sustained data rate.

            (d) Defrag the hard disk regularly.

            (e) Reduce the amount of data to capture.

            (f) Do not use hard disk compression programs.

        (9) Audio capture tips.

            (a) If there is no audio to capture, then do not capture audio.

            (b) Use the sound card software to properly calibrate the input audio levels on all of the audio sources used.

            (c) Use the lowest acceptable audio quality settings for the project, since audio is typically not compressed. Stick with a sample rate of 11.025 kHz or 22.05 kHz. If limited storage space is available, use 8-bit.

    g. Video capture techniques. Use the following tips to assist during editing and compressing of the captured files:

            (1) Interleaving audio and video. To ensure synchronized playback when creating an ".AVI" file, interleave it. Audio and video are not interleaved during capture. Even if the captured video requires no editing, edit each captured file, and properly interleave the audio and video streams. Set the interleave ratio with the video/audio creation tool, and always set the interleave to 1.

            (2) Choosing the right codec. Codec (compression/decompression) is a software tool that translates video or audio between its compressed form (how the audio/video is stored), and the uncompressed form (what is seen). One second of uncompressed video can take up to 27 MB of hard disk space. The Codec Central website offers the best discussion of what codec is, how they work, what codec is available for what systems, and the pros and cons of each codec. Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions for the recommended codec to use.

            (3) Streaming video. Compress the video into an AVI or MPEG format, to store on the hard drive. Compress it at the lowest compression ratio the system can handle, for best quality picture. Do not worry about the file size at this point, because the video will be compressed again into the streamable format.

B-5. Graphics and imagery.

    a. Graphic terminology. Graphics (also called imagery) is a term used to denote any of the following:

        (1) Visual representation. A visual representation of an idea, object, or other factors, shown by means of lines, marks, shapes, and symbols. A still picture, illustration, symbol, shape, or other visual image.

        (2) Simple graphic (line drawings and outlines).

        (3) Complex graphic-a visual expression that more closely represents a photograph.

        (4) Computer generated image. A visual image (graphic) generated by a computer. A computer display of symbols, shapes, and other images (e.g., charts, graphs, line drawings, illustrations, equipment panels, animation, and 3-D).

        (5) Production visual/artwork (a visual or artwork prepared for a production).

        (6) Pictorial representation (e.g., drawings, patterns, graphs, charts, or borders).

    b. Graphic and imagery standards. Refer to paragraph 4-19b(1) on when and how to use graphics, and paragraph 6-13 for more information on producing graphics. Graphic and imagery standards are-

        (1) Image drawing and archiving.

            (a) Most commercial graphics drawing applications are acceptable for drawing and archiving. The selection of a graphics application should depend more on the skills and training of the workforce, and the requirements of the destination application for the graphics.

            (b) All graphics files developed for in-house and contractor efforts shall be archived in their native application format.

            (c) Vector graphics is the preferred drawing and archiving format.

            (d) Raster/bitmap format is the preferred drawing format for photographic or scanned images.

        (2) Image compression and delivery formats.

            (a) Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), Version 89a, 31 July 1990, CompuServe Incorporated.

            (b) Bitmaps (BMP) and device-independent bitmaps (DIB).

            (c) MIL-STD-2301A, with notice of change 1, 1 Mar 01.

            (d) International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) 10918-1:1994, Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG or JPG), as profiled by MIL-STD-188-198A.

    c. Digital still images. Digital still images (single images, as opposed to a series of images that appear to have motion) are a mainstay of VI systems used in education and training. Digital still images include photographs, drawings, charts, and other graphics normally found in print form or film.

    d. Still-image basics. Computer systems work with digital information. The capture and conversion of images, from analog to digital form, is the necessary first step. Once digitized, the data can be creatively edited, manipulated, or combined, then stored and output in a means useful to the educator or trainer. Techniques to capture still images are-

        (1) Scanning. The most efficient way to capture still images is with a graphics scanner; a computer peripheral designed to convert print materials into digital data. The scanner works much like a photocopy machine, except that its output is not a paper copy, but an image transferred to a computer screen. Once on the screen, the image data can be changed, output to other devices, or stored in the computer memory. (See para B-5e, below, for more information on scanners.)

        (2) Frame Grabbers. "Frame grabbing" is a useful technique to capture a still photo, or one frame of video motion, digitize it, and save it on the computer. The input signal goes through the digitizing card, and is played in a window on the computer screen. When the wanted frame appears, a keyed command grabs and files it. From this point, the image is a still image, and can be worked accordingly.

        (3) Digital Cameras. Digital cameras are good enough for lots of uses, and easily store the results in digital fashion. Mass-market digital cameras will not deliver the same resolution, and digital images are not as good, as those taken with a conventional camera. Use digital cameras in applications where the finished photos are going to be used in a nontraditional-that is, nonphotographic-media.

    e. Facts about scanners.

        (1) How a scanner works. With the exception of multipurpose facsimile machines and portable scanners, most scanners are "flatbed scanners." As in photocopying, the graphic is placed on the glass surface, a light is passed under it, and the resulting signals are readable by a computer. When images or text materials are scanned, the computer sees a collection of dots. The dot is normally called a "pixel." Each pixel can be changed in color, brightness, location, and size. This control of the elements of what the user sees as an image, is the greatest advantage offered by the digitization of visuals.

        (2) Scanning slides. Many flatbed scanners offer optional devices for digitizing slides. Specialized slide scanners offer better control and resolution of the image. As with all scanning processes, the quality required by the eventual use of the image, is the major factor driving the level of resolution.

        (3) Scanning text. Scanning text into a computer requires the addition of optical character recognition (OCR) software. High-end, or specialized, scanners often include the software. Until the OCR is added, the computer sees scanned text as pixels, just dark or light dots, not as letters or numbers. Many OCR packages are available; the user pays a price for accuracy and flexibility. Managers must weigh the cost of the OCR-capable scanner, with the time saved by not having to rekey the text into the computer.

        (4) Scanner equipment. Scanners come in many shapes and sizes, from inexpensive hand-held models, to expensive, high-resolution, color-capable models, with OCR software. Some computers require installing an additional card in the computer, then cabling the scanner to the computer. The scanner equipment normally includes the software required to read the scanned image.

        (5) Memory and storage requirements of scanned images. Scanners require large amounts of RAM and storage space to capture and store images (up to a megabyte for some images). These requirements dictate reasonable planning on the number and resolution of scanned images. The recommended technique is to scan only the area of the graphic wanted, preview it on the computer screen, and make adjustments, before saving it to the computer storage.

B-6. Animation.

    a. Approaches of animation. Animation is the simulation of movement, produced by displaying a series of successive images on the screen. In computer graphics, it can be accomplished in several ways, depending on the tools provided, programming languages, and the working environment. Three approaches are-

        (1) Draw an image, erase it, and redraw it in a slightly different place on the screen.

        (2) Create entire screen frames (pages), which are drawn in memory, and displayed in sequence on the screen.

        (3) Use built-in screen-management tools that enable specifying an object, a starting point, and a destination; leaving the process of movement to the underlying software.

    b. Generation of animation. Animation can be generated in-

        (1) Real time. Each frame is created as the viewer watches.

        (2) Simulated time. The computer generates still frames, which are then printed and photographed, or sent to a film or video animation camera. In this way, a computer can spend seconds, minutes, or hours generating each frame, but on replay, the tape or film displays each frame in a fraction of a second. For successful animation sequences, images must replace one another rapidly enough to see continuous movement (i.e., at least 14 FPS).

B-7. Interactive multimedia instruction software support tools.

    a. Any computer software that assists the IMI development team in doing their work more effectively or efficiently, is considered a software or authoring support tool. The software examples listed below may be needed, and are currently what some development teams are using. Specific tools are for reference only; as software emerges, other software products may become better support tools. Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions for the latest recommendations of software tools.

        (1) Design and preauthoring software. Provides instructional designers with a tool they need to build precise blueprints for technology-based training (e.g., Designer's Edge).

        (2) Flow charting. Graphically illustrates the flow, sequence, or interactions of IMI events (e.g.,Visio, ABC Flowcharter, CorelFlow).

        (3) Authoring software. Allows authors to create highly customized IMI courseware, using predefined content objects (e.g., ToolBook II Instructor or Assistant, Dreamweaver with CourseBuilder).

        (4) 2-D imagery creation software. Generates vector illustration and page layout, and provides a full range of drawing, editing, and text tools (e.g., CorelDraw, Adobe Illustrator).

        (5) Imagery editing software. Allows the author to photo-retouch, correct color, and combine graphic elements, paint, and edit (e.g., Adobe PhotoShop; Corel Photo-Paint; Microsoft Paint; Macromedia xRes).

        (6) Scanning software. Converts scanned documents into editable text, to alter and reuse information that once was paperbound (e.g., Omnipage Professional).

        (7) 3-D imagery creation and animation software. Creates 3-D models, adds surface effect, lighting, shadows, backdrop, path for movement, and creates a 3-D scene (e.g., AutoDesk Animator Studio; AutoDesk 3-D Studio; Asymetrix 3D F/X; Macromedia Extreme 3D).

        (8) Animation creation (2-D and animated GIFs). Creates animations or animated GIFs, and controls transition delay, background size, and color (e.g., any of the 3-D software, Macromedia Director, Microsoft FrontPage 97).

        (9) Video editing software. Combines video, still images, animation, and graphics; and edits audio and video clips to create digital videos (e.g., Asymetrix Digital Video Producer, Adobe Premiere).

        (10) Audio editing software. Records, edits, mixes, and manipulates audio files (e.g., SoundBlaster, Wave Editor, Sound Forge).

        (11) Streaming media software. Converts audio and video files to streaming media, and synchronizes multimedia events (e.g., Real Producer Pro 6.2).

        (12) Voice recognition. Recognizes and creates general text from normal continuous speech. (e.g., Dragon NaturallySpeaking, IBM ViaVoice Gold).

        (13) Browser. Bring up, display, and navigate the WWW. Browsers download HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and determine how to display the page (e.g., Netscape Navigator; Microsoft Internet Explorer).

        (14) Plug-in. Add-on software that extends web browsers to run nonstandards-based applications. These web-browser add-ons are commonly referred to as plug-ins for the browser (e.g., Macromedia Shockwave, RealPlayer).

        (15) Integrated office automation suite. A full range of software-word processing, spreadsheets, database management, E-mail, presentations, and web integration (e.g., Microsoft Office Professional, Lotus Smart Suite, Corel Office Professional).

    b. Interactive multimedia instruction design and development requirements, and authoring hints.

        (1) Make critical training delivery decisions early in the development of IMI products. In the future, TRADOC DL plans call for the majority of IMI products to be placed on the RDL and delivered over the Internet. Decisions made early in the development process can simplify the development and use of some products for Internet delivery.

        (2) All courseware developed should be Internet ready (capable of playing over the Internet). The courseware may not actually play over the Internet at this time, because of computer and connectivity restrictions; however, those with a powerful enough computer, and a large bandwidth, will play. Refer to the IMI Implementing Instructions to determine the best way to use the author to meet future requirements.

B-8. Interactive multimedia instruction equipment.

    a. Categories of equipment. Interactive multimedia instruction equipment consists of three categories: user and student workstation; instructor presentation station; and multimedia developer's station, to include all of the equipment useful for multimedia development.

    b. Distributed learning facilities. Distributed learning facilities will contain classrooms and associated equipment areas, with appropriate hardware and software for training individuals and groups. There are three types of DL facilities:

        (1) Distributed Learning Centers contain the facilities for developing, storing, delivering, receiving, and updating DL instruction.

        (2) Distributed Learning Sites (DLS) deliver and receive DL instruction. Active Component sites will be located at Army installations in the continental United States (CONUS) and OCONUS. Reserve Components' DLS, also located throughout CONUS and OCONUS, will normally be assigned to a TASS battalion/brigade at an Army Reserve Center, National Guard Armory, or other RC locations.

        (3) Mobile Distributed Learning Sites (MDLS) are mobile classrooms, air and vehicle-transportable, to provide a temporary classroom capability. The MDLS can deliver and receive on-demand and just-in-time training for deployed units, temporary student surge situations, students in low population density areas, and training at the combat training centers. The Army Distributed Learning Program web site has the latest information on Phase I TADLP System/Subsystem Specifications. Additional information is also contained in the TADLP Master Plan, chapter 5.

    c. Classroom XXI. Classroom XXI is defined as the training environment in which the soldier of the 21st Century will train. This environment is built by leveraging information-age technology to gain training efficiencies, while maximizing training effectiveness. The equipment for display of the IMI should be no higher than the Classroom XXI, Level 3, standard student workstation.

 

Appendix C
Web-based and Hybrid Disc Delivery of IMI

C-1. Overview. The following guidelines are provided to lead into delivery of IMI, via means other than the more traditional CD-ROM; i.e., by Internet, Intranet, or some combination(s) of older, plus newer, technologies. Regardless of the method used to deliver the IMI, it must be developed Internet "Ready." Files must be expanded to include HTML and Java Script, and use Streaming Media. The more common alternatives for consideration are-

    a. Web-Based Training (WBT)-a means by which IMI uses the technologies and methodologies of the WWW, Internet, and Intranets. The IMI is deployed by the WWW.

    b. Hybrid Disc Training Delivery-a means by which IMI uses the technologies and methodologies of the WWW, Internet, Intranets, and CD-ROM, whereby part of the courseware is on the Internet/Intranet, and part of the courseware is on a CD-ROM.

C-2. Types of networks.

    a. Internet. A collection of computer networks (or web), from all over the world, tied together, to communicate with each other via phone or data lines. People use this "web" for purposes of communication, education, and entertainment. One of the most common uses of the Internet is E-Mail.

    b. Intranet. Use of Internet and WWW technology is the basis of an organization's internal network. Use of this network of computers is restricted to only authorized users within an organization.

    c. World Wide Web. This is an international network of computers that display and exchange information in text, graphics, audio, or video formats, according to HTML standards, using browsers. The terms WWW and web are commonly used to refer to the World Wide Web. The web has made the Internet much easier to use. With a simple web browser, and knowledge of a computer mouse, the WWW can be used effectively.

C-3. When to use.

    a. Either WBT or Hybrid Disc-based Training is used to-

        (1) Allow users conduct of real-time, on-line discussions with each other.

        (2) Download multimedia applications to cache, which requires a small amount of local disk space, and then be deleted automatically (if computer cache is set up for this).

        (3) Access a wide range of information while the student is learning.

        (4) Deliver self-paced and nonlinear instruction.

        (5) Use text and graphics interactively.

        (6) Control access.

        (7) Deliver unclassified course content.

        (8) Update course materials instantaneously (majority of text and graphics).

        (9) Train at the lowest cost per student.

    b. Web-based training is used for-

        (1) Delivery to a potentially unlimited audience, from anywhere in the world, at any time.

        (2) Storing all content on a web server.

        (3) Accessing small animation, audio, and video files. Audio and video have to be streamlined or downloaded.

        (4) Implementing a simple instructional and/or testing strategy.

        (5) Maintaining course content centrally.

    c. Hybrid Disc-based Training.

        (1) Need to use text, graphics, audio, video, and animation interactively.

        (2) Require a large quantity of animation, audio, and video files.

        (3) Size of needed animation, audio and video files is large.

        (4) Need to implement a more complex instructional and/or testing strategy.

        (5) Need to access a wide range of information while the student is learning.

        (6) Control remote devices such as a CD-ROM player on the user's (client) computer.

        (7) Play the same courseware applications on the Internet-when the Internet is slow, or there is limited use of the Internet-with links to other Internet applications (i.e., links to references, E-mail to support groups, and course and student management systems).

C-4. Techniques and tools. Develop all IMI for Internet/Intranet delivery, when possible. Use the following techniques and tools in the development of web-based training and/or hybrid disc-based training.

    a. Lesson Development. Break lessons into smaller elements (topics, subtopics, and practical exercises), with each element in separate files that are linked together. Have most common user track sequenced in the same file; linking outside the file will cause another download. Plan hybrid disc to run off CD-ROM, and carefully determine when to link to the web; i.e., quickly changing information that is largely text based. Use relative file addressing.

    b. Handling Text. Break text-based material into small chunks, scrolling no more than three screen pages at a resolution of approximately 600 x 300. Download text from instruction manuals or reference materials.

    c. Screen Layout. When using hybrid disc-based training, develop a screen design that will work for both the web and CD-ROM portion, so the student does not know which is accessed (think web, not CD-ROM, when designing). When delivering courseware in a browser environment, be aware that the menu bars and icons from the web browser remain active, which may cause the student to click the wrong navigation controls. Be very specific when telling the student which navigation controls to use. Whenever practical, recommend delivery of lessons in a more "traditional" screen-based environment, in which the student views one screen at a time, the training covers the browser, and the browser options are not visible.

    d. Instructional and Testing Strategies. Use spaced repetition versus massed learning; and alternative media for feedback and assessment. When using catalog objects from ToolBook that are not currently Internet enabled, plan an export to the web using a newer version of ToolBook. Complex completion and/or essay questions will probably require the instructor to evaluate. Use E-mail, or a computer management system, to collect and send the data to the instructor. Put in place the capability to retain (save) test scoring information at lesson level, which will then be fed into an Army internet-based training management system (AIMS-R). Lean on course management tools for testing.

    e. Links. Link, or anchor, to the target resource and reference. Links outside of the program should have a capability to return the student back to the program at the point of departure. Always provide a return and back feature.

    f. Other Uses of the Technology. Use E-mail, forms, and voice mail as vehicles for quizzes, and question and answer sessions. Also provides the ability to keep FAQ current.

    g. Store. For WBT, store all content on the web server. For hybrid disc-based training, maintain all courseware on the CD-ROM, with only necessary links to the Internet; i.e., updates, and management of courseware.

    h. Updates. Web-based training, and the portion of the hybrid disc on the server, easily make updates on-line. Must send out CD-ROM as courseware is updated.

    i. General Techniques and Tools. Provides ability to schedule collaboration sessions conveniently. Receive permission before using ideas and suggestions in helps and tutorials from software packages.

C-5. Approaches to WBT and Hybrid Disc Delivery. The Army's approach for WBT and Hybrid Disc Delivery is to use Internet standards (presently HTML/Dynamic HyperText Markup Language). The advantages and disadvantages are-

    a. Advantages.

        (1) Uses instant multiplatform capabilities (Windows, Mac, and UNIX).

        (2) Only needs a web browser to access web content.

        (3) In a better position to take advantage of new Internet standards as they happen.

        (4) Eliminates the wait for large downloads. Downloads one file page at a time.

    b. Disadvantages.

        (1) For those with slow computers and limited hardware, results are static courseware, with few graphics and hypertext links.

        (2) Authoring systems are just getting to this level. May have to develop using limited features, or export later, as features are added.

        (3) Courses run inside the browser window, although it is recommended covering the browser navigation, so students do not go outside the lesson path.

C-6. Hardware and software. Needs of each user are provided below:

    a. Developer.

        (1) High-end computer with WWW connectivity and a web browser.

        (2) Authoring system and HTML editors, or tools with author support, such as Java or Java Script.

        (3) Knowledge of bandwidth and capabilities of target population systems. Bandwidths determine the amount of information (in megabytes) that can be transmitted in a given time.

        (4) Use both Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0, and Netscape Navigator 4.0, or higher revisions, to test completed courseware.

        (5) A designated webmaster, and access to a web server to install training on the web, or process for turnover to activity that will install.

    b. End User.

        (1) A computer with a modem and WWW connectivity software, and a web browser or access to classroom XXI and/or DL classroom.

        (2) Multimedia computer, to play IMI with video and audio.

    c. Developer and End User.

        (1) Browser software packages that allow user to browse the WWW.

        (2) Access to search software available on the WWW; i.e., Yahoo.

C-7. Graphics.

    a. World Wide Web.

        (1) Limit the size of graphic files to no more than 50 KB, if possible. Size of the file will increase as user bandwidths increase.

        (2) Use lowest color depth and resolution as possible.

        (3) Incorporate thumbnail pictures, to let the user decide if it is worthwhile to display the whole image.

        (4) Limit the size of graphics, to ensure user will be able to see the entire graphic, without scrolling. If showing a training package made for display inside a browser (without covering browser buttons), the graphics should be approximately 600 x 300.

        (5) Use interlaced (progressive) graphics, whenever user may not need to see the detail in the graphic. Interlaced graphics provide almost immediate feedback for the user about the nature of the graphics, and allow much faster access to the text and links on the page.

        (6) Select the best format for each graphic. Two major web formats are JPEG and GIF. Graphics Interchange Format is best used when there are fewer colors, or larger areas of a single color, such as in-line drawings or computer screens.

    b. CD-ROM (hybrid application).

        (1) Graphics larger than 50 KB.

        (2) Need to create graphics with 256, or better, color resolution.

        (3) Need to animate graphics.

        (4) Need graphics in some other format than JPEG or GIF.

C-8. Create web pages.

    a. Links. Use relative file addressing; absolute links will fail if files are moved around. Use absolute links to other sites and resources that are rarely changed or moved. Some resources state that the homepage can be referenced using absolute links. References should be easy to find.

    b. Test/debug. Create a duplicate directory structure on the local disk. Using an exact copy of the server's directory structure will ensure that relative file addressing works. Test on all browsers the users will be employing.

    c. Reuse files. Reuse any HTML, graphics, video, audio, or any other resources, to eliminate the need to recreate it. Smaller elements have more possible reuse capabilities.

    d. Keep a master file. The master file is the audit trail. This file should contain a copy that notes all corrections and changes (with each change and correction dated, and a note explaining the change), and notes concerning communication and mechanics, policy changes, technical changes, and system enhancements. Store all courseware applications on the WWW/RDL. Store archive files on the CD-ROMs, if server space is limited.

    e. Distribution. Create and maintain a document distribution list that identifies all the people needing the pages. New web pages are available as soon as they are posted on the server-users' attention should be directed to the changes. Call the reader's attention on a local level, with a last modified note at the bottom of each web page. On a global level, use E-mail as a method of summarizing all the changes.

C-9. Near term technology solutions.

    a. Streaming media (video and audio). Ability to play animation, video, and audio in a timely manner, over the web, that allows media and video conferencing to take place faster.

    b. Video conferencing. Collaborative conferencing or training from the web browser, without leaving the office, field, or school.

    c. Larger bandwidths allow for quick download of information and training.

    d. Automated Instructional Management System-Redesign centrally controls all training activities (distributed learning and resident), including course delivery, learner access, collaboration, and performance tracking.

 

Appendix D
Instructional Media Design Documents

Table D-1 shows the required elements for an instructional media design package. It gives the requirements listed in the Data Item Description 81520, Designer's Edge design tool, and TRADOC Reg 350-70.

Table D-1
Instructional media design elements

Element

DID81520

DESIGNER'S EDGE

TRADOC Reg 350-70

Acronyms and abbreviations

X

Glossary

Approval procedures and signatures

X

Part VI

Branching data

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Change record

X

Classification markings

X

Paragraph 1-1-1/3

Color scheme

X

X

Conventions

X

X

Copyright permission

X

Paragraph 1-1-5

Course completion criteria

X

Chapter VI-7

Course evaluation plan

X

Chapter III-1

Course management plan

Chapter VI-6 & 8, Appendix E

Course mandatory training sequence

Chapter VI-6

Course map

X

Chapter VI-6

Course prerequisites

X

Chapter VI-6

Course purpose

Chapter II-8

Course scope

X

Chapter II-8

Course title and date

X

X

Chapter VI-6

DAVIS/DITIS information

X

Chapter VI-10

Description of IMI content

X

Chapter VI-6, VI-10

Developer's name

X

X

Distribution information

Chapter VI-10

Enabling learning objectives

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Environmental factors

X

Chapter VI-6

Flowcharts

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Foreign disclosure restriction statements

Chapter 1-1, VI-6

Hazard awareness notice

X

Chapter VI-6

Instruction hours

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Instructional strategies

X

X

Chapter IV-2, VI-4, VI-6

Instructor interactivity

X

Chapter VI-6, VI-10

Learning steps and elements

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Lesson completion time

X

Chapter VI-6

Lesson numbers

Chapter VI-6

Lesson outline

Chapter VI-6

Lesson treatment

X

X

Letter of delivery

X

List of tables

X

Chapter VI-6

Course Management Plan

X

X

Chapter VI-8

Master content outline

X

Chapter VI-6

Media requirements

X

X

Chapter VI-6, VI-10

Mission statement

X

Number of floppy diskettes

X

Chapter VI-10

Performance measures

X

Chapter V-2, VI-2

Portability standards

X

Post production requirements

X

Preface

X

Chapter II-8

Preparation date

X

Chapter VI-6

Proponent

Chapter VI-6, Appendix C

Proponent name

X

Chapter VI-6, VI-8

Prototype lesson (lesson outline)

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Reference materials

X

Chapter VI-6

Remediation data

X

X

Risk assessment codes

Para 1-2-5

Safety considerations

X

Chapter VI-6, Para 1-2-3

Self-motivated training information

Chapter VI-4

Sequence of learning

Chapter VI-6

Sequence of tasks and lessons

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Simulated equipment

X

Chapter VI-6, II-5

Storyboard information

X

Chapter VI-6, VI-10

Student evaluation plan

Chapter VI-7

Student input device

X

Student remediation

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Sustainment training requirements

Chapter VI-6

Table of contents

X

Appendix E

Table of illustrations

X

Target audience

X

Chapter VI-6

Technical requirements

X

Chapter VI-10

Terminal learning objectives

X

X

Chapter VI-6

Test items

X

X

Chapter VI-7

Test scores

X

Chapter VI-7

Training data description

X

Training Site

X

Chapter VI-7

Training time

Chapter VI-6, VI-7

Validated performance measures

Chapter V-2, VI-2, III

 

Appendix E
Intellectual Property

E-1. Overview. The following guidelines are provided on intellectual property:

    a. Obtain permission to use anything incorporated into the training product (e.g., text, images, music, audio, or video), developed by someone other than yourself, IAW the Copyright Act of 1976, U.S. Code Title 17.

    b. The material presented in this appendix is derived from the book Multimedia Law and Business Handbook by J. Dianne Brinson and Mark F. Radcliffe (Ladera Press, 1996). It is copyrighted by Brinson and Radcliffe and used here with their permission.

E-2. Intellectual property laws. The following four major intellectual property laws in the United States are important for multimedia developers-

    a. Copyright law, which protects original "works of authorship."

    b. Patent law, which protects new, useful, and "non-obvious" inventions and processes.

    c. Trademark law, which protects words, names, and symbols used by manufacturers and businesses, to identify their goods and services.

    d. Trade secret law, which protects valuable information not generally known, that has been kept secret by its owner.

E-3. Types of intellectual property.

    a. Copyright Law. Multimedia works are created by combining "content"-music, text, graphics, illustrations, photographs, software-that is protected under copyright law. Developers and publishers must avoid infringing copyrights owned by others. Original multimedia works are protected by copyright. The Copyright Act's exclusive rights provision gives developers and publishers the right to control unauthorized exploitation of their works.

    b. Patent Law. Patent Law protects inventions and processes ("utility" patents) and ornamental designs ("design" patents). Inventions and processes protected by utility patents can be electrical, mechanical, or chemical in nature. Examples of works protected by utility patents are a microwave oven, genetically engineered bacteria for cleaning up oil spills, a computerized method of running cash management accounts, and a method for curing rubber. Examples of works protected by design patents are a design for the sole of running shoes, a design for sterling silver tableware, and a design for a water fountain.

    c. Trademark Law. Law Trademarks and service marks are words, names, symbols, or devices used by manufacturers of goods, and providers of services, to identify their goods and services, and distinguish their goods and services from goods manufactured and sold by others.

    d. Trade Secret Law. A trade secret is information of any sort that is valuable to its owner, not generally known, and the owner has kept secret. Trade secrets are protected only under state law. The Uniform Trade Secrets Act, in effect in a number of states, defines trade secrets as "information, including a formula, pattern, compilation, program, device, method, technique, or process that derives independent economic value from not being generally known and not being readily ascertainable and is subject to reasonable efforts to maintain secrecy."

E-4. Copyright protection. Copyright protection is available for "works of authorship" listed in table E-1.

Table E-1
Copyright protection

Works of Authorship

The Copyright Act states that works of authorship include the following types of works that are of interest to the multimedia developer:

Literary Works

Novels, nonfiction prose, poetry, newspaper articles and newspapers, magazine articles and magazines, computer software, software manuals, training manuals, manuals, catalogs, brochures, ads (text), and compilations such as business directories.

Motion Pictures and Other AV Works

Movies, documentaries, travelogues, training films and videos, television shows, television ads, and interactive multimedia works.

Sound Recordings

Recordings of music, sounds, or words.

Musical Works

Songs, advertising jingles, and instrumentals.

Pictorial, Graphic, and Sculptural Works

Photographs, posters, maps, paintings, drawings, graphic art, display ads, cartoon strips and cartoon characters, stuffed animals, statues, paintings, and works of fine art.

 

E-5. Obtaining copyright protection.

    a. Copyright protection arises automatically when an "original" work of authorship is "fixed" in a tangible medium of expression. Registration with the Copyright Office is optional (but registering is required before filing an infringement suit, and registering early will make eligible receipt of attorney's fees, and statutory damages in a future lawsuit).

    b. Originality. A work is "original" in the copyright sense, if it owes its origin to the author, and was not copied from some preexisting work.

    c. Fixation. A work is "fixed" when it is made "sufficiently permanent or stable to permit it to be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated for a period of more than transitory duration." Even copying a computer program into RAM has been found to be of sufficient duration for it to be "fixed" (although some scholars and lawyers disagree with this conclusion).

NOTE: Neither the "originality" requirement, or the "fixation" requirement, is stringent. An author can "fix" words, for example, by writing them down, typing them on an old-fashioned typewriter, dictating them into a tape recorder, or entering them into a computer. A work can be original without being novel or unique.

    d. There are a number of myths concerning the necessity of getting a license. Five are presented below:

        (1) Myth #1-"The work I want to use doesn't have a copyright notice on it, so it's not copyrighted. I'm free to use it." Most published works contain a copyright notice. Copyright is secured automatically upon creation. However, for works published on or after March 1, 1989, the use of copyright notice is optional. The fact that a work does not have a copyright notice does not mean the work is not protected by copyright.

        (2) Myth #2-"I don't need a license because I'm using only a small amount of the copyrighted work." It is true that de minimis copying (copying a small amount) is not copyright infringement. Unfortunately, it is rarely possible to tell where de minimis copying ends, and copyright infringement begins. There are no "bright line" rules. Copying a small amount of a copyrighted work is infringement, if what is copied is a qualitatively substantial portion of the copied work.

        (3) Myth #3-"Since I'm planning to give credit to all authors whose works I copy, I don't need to get licenses." If credit is given to a work's author, the user is not a plagiarist (not pretending that they authored the copied work). However, attribution is not a defense to copyright infringement.

        (4) Myth #4-"My multimedia work will be a wonderful showcase for the copyright owner's work, so I'm sure the owner will not object to my use of the work." Do not assume that a copyright owner will be happy to have his or her work used. Even if the owner is willing for their work to be used, they will probably want to charge a license fee. Content owners view multimedia as a new market for licensing their material.

        (5) Myth #5-"I don't need a license because I'm going to alter the work I copy." Generally, liability cannot be avoided for copyright infringement by altering or modifying work copied. Copying and modifying protected elements of a copyrighted work infringes the copyright owner's modification right, as well as the copying right.

    e. If copying, it is better to get permission or a license (unless fair use applies). Liability cannot be avoided for infringement by showing how much of the protected work was not taken. Elements can include graphics, quotes, text, software programs, buttons, audio, video, backgrounds, etc.

E-6. Fair use.

    a. A license is not needed to use a copyrighted work if use is "fair use." Unfortunately, it is difficult to tell whether a particular use of a work is fair or unfair. Generally speaking, the law is not clear. Currently "fair use" is generally accepted to apply to classroom/on-campus use only.

    b. The courts are most likely to find fair use where the new work is not a substitute for the copyrighted work. If the multimedia work serves traditional "fair use" purposes-criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research-there is a better chance of falling within the bounds of fair use, than if the work is sold to the public for entertainment purposes and commercial gain.

    c. Determinations are made on a case-by-case basis by considering these four factors:

    (1) Factor #1. Purpose and character of use. The courts are most likely to find fair use where the use is for noncommercial purposes, such as a book review.

    (2) Factor #2. Nature of the copyrighted work. The courts are most likely to find fair use where the copied work is a factual work, rather than a creative one.

    (3) Factor #3. Amount and substantiality of the portion used. The courts are most likely to find fair use where what is used is a tiny amount of the protected work. If what is used is small in amount, but substantial in terms of importance, a finding of fair use is unlikely.

    (4) Factor #4. Effect on the potential market for or value of the protected work.

E-7. Obtaining patent protection.

    a. To qualify for a utility patent, an invention must be new, useful, and "nonobvious." To meet the novelty requirement, the invention must not have been known or used by others in this country before the applicant invented it, and it also must not have been patented or described in a printed publication in the U.S. or a foreign country before the applicant invented it. The policy behind the novelty requirement is that a patent is issued in exchange for the inventor's disclosure to the public of the details of his invention. If the inventor's work is not novel, the inventor is not adding to the public knowledge, so the inventor should not be granted a patent.

    b. Scope of protection. A patent owner has the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention or design in the U.S. during the term of the patent. Anyone who makes, uses, or sells a patented invention or design within the U.S., during the term of the patent, without permission from the patent owner, is an infringer even, if he or she did not copy the patented invention or design, or even know about it. (Example: Developer's staff members, working on their own, developed a software program for manipulating images in developer's multimedia works. Although developer's staff did not know it, inventor has a patent on that method of image manipulation. Developer's use of the software program infringes inventor's patent. Before June 8, 1995, utility patents were granted for a period of 17 years. After that date, patents are issued for the greater of 17 years after issuance, or 20 years after filing. Design patents are granted for a period of 14 years. Once the patent on an invention or design has expired, anyone is free to make, use, or sell the invention or design.)

E-8. Obtaining trademark protection.

    a. Trademark protection is available for words, names, symbols, or devices that are capable of distinguishing the owner's goods or services from the goods or services of others. A trademark that merely describes a class of goods, rather than distinguishing the trademark owner's goods from goods provided by others, is not protectable. Example: The trademark WordPerfect is used by the WordPerfect Corporation to identify that company's word processing software and distinguish that software from other vendors' word processing software.

    b. Scope of protection. In general, whether federal or state, protects a trademark owner's commercial identity (goodwill, reputation, and investment in advertising) by giving the trademark owner the exclusive right to use the trademark, on the type of goods or services for which the owner is using the trademark. Any person who uses a trademark in connection with goods or services, in a way that is likely to cause confusion, is an infringer. Trademark owners can obtain injunctions against the confusing use of their trademarks by others, and they can collect damages for infringement.

E-9. Obtaining trade secret protection.

    a. The following types of technical and business information are examples of material that can be protected by trade secret law: customer lists, instructional methods, manufacturing processes, and methods of developing software. Inventions and processes that cannot be patented can be protected under trade secret law. Patent applicants generally rely on trade secret law to protect their inventions while the patent applications are pending.

    b. Scope of protection. A trade secret owner has the right to keep others from misappropriating and using the trade secret. Sometimes the misappropriation is a result of industrial espionage. Many trade secret cases involve people who have taken their former employers' trade secrets for use in new businesses or for new employers. Trade secret owners have recourse only against misappropriation. Discovery of protected information through independent research, or reverse engineering (taking a product apart to see how it works), is not misappropriation.

    c. Trade secret protection endures so long as the requirements for protection-generally, value to the owner and secrecy-continue to be met. The protection is lost if the owner fails to take reasonable steps to keep the information secret. (Example: After Sam discovered a new method for manipulating images in multimedia works, he demonstrated his new method to a number of other developers at a multimedia conference. Sam lost his trade secret protection for the image manipulation method because he failed to keep his method secret.)

E-10. More help.

    a. Go to http://www.laderapress.com for more information. (Select FREE PRIMER: An Intellectual Property Law Primer For Multimedia And Web Developers, copyright 1998 by J. Dianne Brinson and Mark F. Radcliffe.) Also available: Multimedia Law and Business Handbook by J. Dianne Brinson and Mark F. Radcliffe (http://store.yahoo.com/laderapress/mlbh.html; 800-523-3721).

    b. For problems, questions, or more information, contact the local Staff Judge Advocate.

    c. On October 28, 1998, H.R. 2281, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, (HR2281), was enacted into law. Section 403 requires that the Copyright Office consult with representatives of copyright owners, nonprofit educational institutions, and nonprofit libraries and archives, and thereafter submit to Congress, recommendations on how to promote distributed education through digital technologies, including interactive digital networks, while maintaining an appropriate balance between the rights of copyright owners and the interests of users. The following are additional web sites:


Appendix F
Technical Specifications for Television Videotapes and IMI Products

F-1. Television videotape standards. Master tapes must meet the following standards, prior to submission:

    a. Engineering standards. The original and master tape must meet the standards and specifications of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) 230M-1996 1/2 inch Type L Betacam SP (mode 2) format. Recordings must be according to applicable recommended standards and practices of the National Television System Committee, the SMPTE, IEC, ANSI, and the EIA.

    b. Luminance level. The maximum luminance of the video signal must not exceed 100 Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) units. Any video signal that exceeds the maximum level, or is clipped, is not acceptable. The minimum luminance level for special effect requirements must be at least 40 IRE units. The chroma level must not exceed 100 IRE units. Set-up levels should be consistent. Levels too high will wash out the video. Levels that clip the blacks (too low) will place video "in the mud." The color burst must be present for black and white productions, and all black segments of the tape. A radio frequency level of 75 percent of maximum tape-flux level, as defined in SMPTE 230M-1996, is required.

    c. Videotape consistency. The entire master videotape should maintain consistency in style, color, and absolute registration, for television videotape visuals.

    d. Transitions. Transitions in time or place, accomplished by electronic editing, should conform to ANSI/SMPTE 170M-1999, and appear logical and understandable to the audience.

    e. Visuals. Visuals should be clear, with no faulty pictures due to bad sync editing, flagging, incorrect levels, lack of focus, poor lighting, or framing. The master must not contain noticeable dropout, after dropout compensation.

    f. Camera. Camera lenses and adapters must be clean during videography, with no dust or dirt particles, drops of moisture, smears, or visible scratches. Camera pickup tubes, with any visible burn-in, shall not be used for videography. Charge Coupled Device cameras containing dead pixels will not be used for videography.

    g. Video. The video on the master tape must not be more than one generation from the original material. Exceptions must be coordinated with Commander, ATSC, ATTN: ATIC-CO-SC, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5168. All videotape stock footage must be legally cleared for Army use, IAW AR 25-1.

    h. Text. There should be no more than 45 words of text on a frame of text, or 10 lines of text, or 30 characters per line, including spaces.

    i. Time Code. A nondrop frame time code, as defined in ANSI/SMPTE 12M-1999, must be placed on the cue track (channel 3 audio) and must be field one dominant. It must be sync-locked, continuous, and always increasing, beginning in the leader, and running through the lead out. The recorded level must be at least 0VU. The SMPTE time code will start no later than the beginning of the color bars, and continue for 30 seconds following the last video frame.

    j. Signal/noise ratio. The video signal/noise ratio must be equal to, or greater than, 51 decibels, 10 kHz to 7.0 MHz, at 50 IRE units flat field level. The audio must be clear, free from hiss, distortion, and background noise. The video level throughout a master videotape must be consistent. The audio must be synchronized with the video action and must not contain dropouts.

    k. Audio. Audio signals recorded on audio tracks shall be according to SMPTE 230M-1996. All music and sound effects must be legally cleared for Army use.

F-2. Television videotape geography. The sequence of recorded information (see fig F-1) follows:

    a. Tape lead-in. Include sufficient tape lead-in to allow access to the slate. (This applies to open-reel formats such as 1 inch).

    b. Reference video and audio.

        (1) Video. Record 1 minute of SMPTE or EIA RS189A split field color bars.

        (2) Audio. Record tone at 1 KHz and 0 volume unit during the color bar segment. This reference tone must be on the active program audio track(s). Audio on tracks 1 and 2 should be in phase. After this 60 second reference, record 10 seconds of video black.

    c. Slate. The slate must contain the Department of the Army Visual Information Production and Distribution Program release number, Product Identification Number (PIN), title of proponent school, date, and production facility.

    d. Trailer. Allow at least 10 seconds of blank tape after the 30 seconds of black at end of program.

Figure F-1. Sequence of recorded information

F-3. Television videotape title format.

    a. Classification title frame. The classification title frame, for a videotape containing classified material, must follow the format as shown in figure F-2. Background color must be red with white letters.

Figure F-2. Classification title frame

    b. Title format. The following are the only openings or closings authorized for Armywide, local, or contract produced VI productions or multimedia products:

        (1) Openings. Excluding any color bars, tone, and slating information, the DoD seal shall be used for 10 seconds as the opening and first frame of: video for a VI production; or graphic for a multimedia product, and shall precede the production and product title. On the lower left-hand side of the seal shall be the PIN for all Armywide distributed products, and the Product Approval Number for all local products (see fig F-3). On the lower right-hand side of the seal, display the calendar year the product is released. The next series frame, displayed no less than 5 seconds, shall contain the Army Seal on the left side, and the production or multimedia title centered on the right side, with the release number centered under the title (see fig F-4).

Figure F-3. Sample opening/first frame using DoD seal

 

 

Figure F-4. Sample frame using Department of the Army seal

        (2) Closings. The frame immediately following the end of the production will display the words "The End" (centered). (See fig F-5.) The name of the producing VI activity, and its Defense VI Authorization Number, will be centered and displayed on the last frame of video for a VI production; or video/graphic for a multimedia product. Productions produced under contract by a DoD VI-authorized contracting activity shall state on the last frame "Produced Under Contract by (Contracting Activity Name) for (Customer Agency/Facility Name)."

        (3) Credits. Personal credits will not be used on any production or multimedia product created for, or by, the Army.

Figure F-5. Sample closing frame.

F-4. Television videotape master review requirements.

    a. Master tape review requirements.

        (1) The Betacam SP or 1-inch Type "C" master tape, along with a dub of the master, must be sent to Commander, ATSC, ATTN: ATIC-CO-SC, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5168.

        (2) Label all master tapes on the videotape cassette (or reel) and tape container. The two labels must be identical and display the following information:

            (a) TRADOC PIN.

            (b) Television videotape (TVT) release number.

            (c) Title of tape.

            (d) Recording agency.

            (e) Highest classification of tape material.

            (f) Date copy was produced (see fig F-6).

Figure F-6. Sample videotape labels

    b. Master videotape evaluation. Review each master videotape, to ensure compliance with production, graphic, and engineering standards and specifications. Master videotapes, meeting all requirements, will be accepted for replication. Master videotapes will be rejected for noncompliance with standards and specifications. If the master videotape is rejected, a report of deficiencies, and the master tape, will be forwarded to the preparing agency for corrections. The ATSC Strategic Communications Office (SCO) will perform a new evaluation, upon receipt of the corrected master tape, to verify corrections.

    c. DAVIS/DITIS VI production video clips. For each separate VI production, provide a 60 to 120 second clip depicting the concept, purpose, and training objective of the program, or select a 60 to 120 second segment of the actual production that conveys the necessary information.

        (1) Record the video clip on a VHS cassette as follows:

            (a) Ten seconds of Slate with the standard information.

            (b) Five seconds of video black (7.5 IRE).

            (c) The 60 to 120 second video clip.

            (d) Fifteen seconds of video black (7.5 IRE).

(Repeat these four steps for each additional clip submitted on the same tape.)

        (2) Label and identify the tape as "DAVIS Video Clips," and including POC name and telephone number, and VI activity name. Also list the PINs of the programs represented on the tape.

        (3) Forward the tape to Commander, ATSC, ATTN: ATIC-CO-SC, Building 1534, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5168.

    d. Mass replication. Television videotape projects, approved by the preparing agency, require technical review and acceptance by ATSC, before replication and distribution are authorized.

F-5. CD-ROM master package requirements.

    a. CD-ROM master package review requirements. Send the compact disc-recordable (CD-R) master, and media containing the CD-ROM master artwork package (e.g., 3-1/2 diskette or CD-R) for the covers and inserts, to the ATSC proponent courseware manager at Commander, ATSC, ATTN: ATIC-ITSC-CM, Building 2791, Harrison Loop, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5166. Specifications for the CD-ROM master artwork package are contained in appendix H.

    b. Interactive Multimedia Instruction CD-ROM master package evaluation. Review each

CD-ROM master package to ensure compliance with production, graphic, and authoring specifications and guidelines.

    c. Submission requirements. Interactive Multimedia Instruction CD-ROM projects, approved by the preparing agency, require review and acceptance by ATSC, before replication and distribution is authorized. The following items are required:

        (1) DD Form 2568.

        (2) Basis of Issue Plan (BOIP) (TRADOC Form 888-R) when used as sustainment training, and not distributed solely through Army Training Requirements and Resource System (ATRRS) course enrollment.

        (3) Command Safety Office certification that product follows or advises correct safety policies and procedures.

            (a) Proponent approval letter for the final product, with validation results.

            (b) Copy of other supporting/adjunctive materials.

            (c) Copies of all copyright releases. Provide appropriate written authority/permission from the property owner prior to using copyrighted material.

            (d) Legal clearance and release from the Judge Advocate General Office.

            (e) All legal releases and clearances have been furnished for talent, music license, special effects rights, etc.

            (f) Authoring system license agreement, to include any rights to software used in the program.

            (g) Three copies of the master CD-R (recommend recording at 1x speed).

            (h) CD-ROM master artwork package, per appendix H.

            (i) Proponent Digital Training Facility certification statement.

            (j) Complete DL catalog Input Form for the On-Line Card Catalog.


Appendix G
Considerations for Producing a CD-ROM

G-1. Overview. These considerations are based on issues and problems that occurred during the development of several multimedia courses. Apply the guidelines to any multimedia development placed on CD-ROM.

    a. Guidelines for courseware delivery. Develop courseware to run on the lowest level of hardware required to meet the training requirement. Do not develop courseware that requires hardware exceeding the Classroom XXI, Level 3 user standards.

    b. Distribution guidelines. Consider the following with the decision to distribute courseware via CD-ROM-

        (1) The size of the data to be put on CD-ROM. If the data is more than 650 MB, use multiple CD-ROMs.

        (2) The hardware available to the target audience. CD-ROMs can be played on both

CD-ROM and DVD players. DVDs can only be played on DVD players. Consider the hardware the target audience has in this decision.

    c. Licensing and distribution issues. Consider the following issues-

        (1) Determine if any software packages (authoring system, retrieval software) are required to use the proposed CD-ROM training product.

        (2) It is better to include the runtime version of the software on the CD-ROM than to require the user to have the software to run the application.

        (3) Copyright agreements and licensing fees (i.e., site license, one-time fee, free runtime distribution) will play a major role in determining the decision to distribute a training product.

    d. Guidelines for directories and folders.

        (1) Organize directories and folders as they will appear on the CD-ROM.

        (2) Organize support files (video, audio, graphics, icons, executables, etc.) in subdirectories.

    e. Guidelines for files. When developing courseware, consider the following guidelines for development of files associated with the courseware-

        (1) Keep all files that hyperlink among themselves in the same directory/folder.

        (2) Media files (video, audio, etc.) should be in the same directory, or in a subdirectory/subfolder.

        (3) Include all setup files used to generate the CD-ROM.

        (4) Include all support files (audio, video, graphic, help, etc.) used in the application.

        (5) Include a general description of the program, or types of programs, on the CD in the Read-Me file. Refer to the TRADOC AutoPlay Objects and procedures for detailed information. Refer to TRADOC Reg 350-70, Appendix K for additional TATS requirements for the Read-Me file.

        (6) If the software to run the application is not included on the CD-ROM, include a listing of the software needed to run the application in the "readme.txt" file.

        (7) Include a flat American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) file titled "CONTENT.TXT" in the top level (root) directory (see para G-2 for format).

            (a) Use no more than eighty characters per line, ending with a hard return at the end of each line. (ASCII carriage return - line feed combination carriage return line.)

            (b) Beginning in column one of the line, use descriptors, in all capital letters, to introduce each new information block (i.e., "DISC TITLE"). For consistency, use all the descriptors, although the associated information is optional.

            (c) Use uppercase and lowercase for associated data.

    f. Guidelines for optimizing files. Ensure-

        (1) All files are compressed (made as small as possible) before making the CD-ROM.

        (2) All unused clip files (sound, video, animation, still images) and resources (bitmaps, cursors, fonts, icons, menu bars, palettes, shared script) are removed, using Authoring System utilities.

        (3) Graphic files are minimized, so that a larger graphic, than is necessary for the method of training delivery, is not stored.

        (4) All file names are unique-no redundancies.

    g. Guidelines for starting the training program. Consider use of the following guidelines-

        (1) Insure the user is provided the option of a shortcut, icon, or auto start to begin the program.

        (2) The program can be run from any CD-ROM drive.

        (3) The CD-ROM drive letter should not be hard-coded into the program.

    h. Guidelines for installing. Design the training for minimal impact on the user systems by-

        (1) Checking for sufficient hard-disk space, as part of the installation program, and notifying the user if insufficient space is available, and how much additional space is required.

        (2) Downloading to the user's hard drive ONLY those files required for proper operation (runtime software and multimedia drivers) and those to be updated (student records, student scores, and main course lessons).

        (3) Establishing a single location (i.e., directory) for all downloaded files.

        (4) Checking the latest version of media player (i.e., Video for Windows, Active Movie) and based on user's option, update player.

        (5) Updating media paths, to allow the user to run the application from the CD-ROM, or the hard drive. Refer to the TRADOC AutoPlay Objects and procedures for detailed information.

    i. Guidelines for uninstalling. Design uninstall software so that the appropriate training is removed from the user's computer.

        (1) A dialog box is required confirming or canceling the user's intent, before removal of the training is initiated.

        (2) The uninstall software will not remove any Courseware Management user's files. Refer to the TRADOC AutoPlay Objects and procedures for detailed information.

    j. Courseware checks. Have the software checked for presence of hardware or software plug-ins required to run the courseware; i.e., Sound Card, etc. If hardware is not present, inform the user and ensure the courseware still runs, even at a reduced performance. If software plug-in is not available, inform the user, and provide link for software download.

G-2. Format for the CONTENT.TXT file.

    a. Title. State verbatim, the name by which the disc is known, including any disc set numbering schemes, such as 1 of 3. Do not include any superfluous descriptions or qualifiers. More than one title may be needed if the CD-ROM contains more than one distinct product, or contains sets of information.

    b. Edition. The edition, version, revision, change number, or identification of the title.

    c. Volume Identifier. This should be identical to the 11 characters of the Volume Identifier (first 11 characters of the ISO 9660 Volume Identifier (32 characters available)), written in the header of the disc. Use only uppercase letters, 0-9, and the underscore for Volume Identifications. One way to accommodate the requirement for unique volume identification for discs in CD-ROM jukeboxes, towers, and network systems, is to use the producing organization's Unit Identification Code as the first six characters. The producing organization should then manage/ensure disc uniqueness using the next five characters of the Volume Identifier.

    d. Originator. The originator is the name of an organization(s) or individual(s) that developed the information. If the names of editors or compilers are provided, follow each name by "(ed.)" or "(comp.)," respectively.

    e. CD Publication Date. The date when the disc was published, or otherwise made available for release, is the date of publication.

    f. Security Classification. Provide the name of the security restrictions on the disc. Use the highest classification of any information on the disc.

    g. Classification Authority/Security Classification System. Include the name of the classification system used. State/reference the actual classification authority or "Multiple Sources," if appropriate. Use "NA" for unclassified discs.

    h. Security Handling Description. Give any additional information about the restrictions on handling the disc.

    i. Declassification Date. Provide the date the disc becomes declassified. This is either the last declassification date of any material on the disc, or Originating Agency Determination Required, if appropriate. Use "NA" for unclassified discs.

    j. Time Period of Content refers to the time period(s) for which the data on the disc is valid. For calendar date, use year as YYYY (and optionally month and year as MMM YYYY, or day, month and year as DD MMM YYYY). For time of day, use hour as H: or HH: (and optionally hour and minute as H:MM or HH:MM; or hour, minute and second as H:MM:SS, or HH:MM:SS). Identify AM or PM following the time. Select one of the following methods:

        (1) SINGLE DATE/TIME is a means of encoding a single date and time, when there is no expiration date for the entire CD-ROM contents.

Example:

TIME PERIOD OF CONTENT:

BEGINNING DATE: 1997 (or JUN 1997 or 2 JUN 1997)

BEGINNING TIME: 2:00 PM (or 2:43 PM or 2:43:23 PM)

        (2) MULTIPLE DATES/TIMES encodes multiple individual dates and times when there is more than one "product" or "sets of information" on the CD-ROM, with different beginning dates/times, but no expirations.

Example:

TIME PERIOD OF CONTENT:

DATA DESCRIPTION: The Genesis of CD-ROM (U)

BEGINNING DATE: 1997 (or JUN 1997 or 2 JUN 1997)

BEGINNING TIME: 9:00 AM (or 9:15 AM or 9:15:46 AM)

        (3) RANGE OF DATES/TIMES requires encoding a range of dates and times using BEGINNING and ENDING DATES/TIMES, if there is an expiration date of the entire CD contents, or there are different expirations for each "product" or "sets of information" on the CD.

            (a) Example using BEGINNING and ENDING DATES/TIMES for entire CD:

TIME PERIOD OF CONTENT:

BEGINNING DATE: 1997 (or JUN 1997 or 2 JUN 1997)

BEGINNING TIME: 2:00 PM (or 2:43 PM or 2:43:23 PM)

ENDING DATE: 2002 (or JUN 2002 or 2 JUN 2002)

ENDING TIME: 2:00 PM (or 2:43 PM or 2:43:23 PM)

            (b) Example using BEGINNING and ENDING DATES/TIMES for different products/sets of information:

TIME PERIOD OF CONTENT:

DATA DESCRIPTION: The Genesis of CD-ROM (U)

BEGINNING DATE: 1997 (or JUN 1997 or 2 JUN 1997)

BEGINNING TIME: 2:00 PM (or 2:43 PM or 2:43:23 PM)

ENDING DATE: 2000 (or JUN 2000 or 2 JUN 2000)

ENDING TIME: 8:00 AM (or 8:15 AM or 8:15:05 AM)

DATA DESCRIPTION: Army Tactical Information Compendium

BEGINNING DATE: 1996 (or AUG 1996 or 9 AUG 1996)

BEGINNING TIME: 9:00 AM (or 9:15 AM or 9:15:46 AM)

ENDING DATE: 2000 (or SEP 2000 or 21 SEP 2000)

ENDING TIME: 9:00 AM (or 9:15 AM or 9:15:46 AM)

    k. Operating Environment/Native Data Set Environment. State the minimum DOS version, Microsoft Windows version, UNIX version, or Macintosh version that is required to operate the disc. In addition, state any other hardware/software requirements.

l. Access Constraints. Restrictions and legal prerequisites for accessing the data, to include any access constraints applied, to assure the protection of privacy or intellectual property, and any special restrictions or limitations on obtaining the data.

    m. Use Constraints. Constraints are restrictions and legal prerequisites for using the data after access is granted. These include any use constraints applied to assure the protection of privacy or intellectual property, and any special restrictions or limitations on obtaining the data.

    n. Abstract. Include a brief narrative summary describing the CD product/data, and its purpose. More than one abstract may be needed if the CD-ROM contains more than one distinct product, or sets of information.

    o. Ordering Instructions. State specifically how to request copies of the CD.

    p. Fees. The fees/terms for receiving the disc.

    q. Point of Contact. Contact information for an individual and organization that is knowledgeable about the data on the disc includes-

        (1) Contact person.

        (2) Contact organization.

        (3) Contact address.

        (4) Contact voice telephone.

        (5) Contact facsimile telephone.

        (6) Contact E-Mail/Internet Address.

    r. Maintenance and Update Frequency. State plans for product enhancements, schedule of updates, termination of product support, or any other related information.

    s. Originator Comments. Provide any comments desired by the originator of the CD, or products on the CD.

    t. Document Identification. List the number, title, date, and originator of each document or product found on the disc. (This and the following document abstract section can be repeating pairs.)

    u. Document Abstract. Provide a brief narrative describing each document, or product, on the disc. (This field and the document identification field can be repeating pairs for every document/product found on the disc.)

Appendix H
CD-ROM Labels and Television Videotape Jacket Insert Specifications

This appendix provides the IMI label package specifications for CD-ROMs and TVT label inserts. Submit artwork as part of a final package for mastering, replication, and distribution.

Section I
Specification for Multimedia Master Material Label Package

H-1. CD-ROM artwork package specifications.

    a. CD-ROM artwork package standards.

        (1) CD-ROM artwork. The labels, covers, and inserts for IMI CD-ROMs are replicated under commercial contract, using silk screen and offset press processes. This requires electronic files that render type and color separations accurately, with templates created for the specific packaging required. For accurate replication:

            (a) Fonts used by the printer, replicating the labels and inserts, must be the same version, name, and manufacturer as those used to create the artwork, and therefore, must be supplied with the submission package. Embed all fonts within the artwork files. No custom designed typefaces will be used. Recommend using no more than two fonts or typefaces for the artwork.

            (b) Graphic images need to be 150-300 dots per inch (dpi) in Tagged Image File Format or Encapsulated Postscript format.

            (c) Supply artwork containing color with cyan, magenta, yellow, black (CMYK) separations.

        (2) Labeling software. Create the artwork with professional desktop publishing, or illustration software, using the Windows operating system. Examples of this are Corel Draw, Quark XPress, and Adobe products such as Photoshop, PageMaker, and FrameMaker. Office Graphics applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint and Word are not acceptable formats.

        (3) Submission requirements. Complete submission requirements for the CD-ROM Master Package are in appendix F, paragraph F-5. Submission requirements for the master artwork package are:

            (a) Three master CD-ROMs with label (recommend recording at 1x speed).

            (b) Printer dummy of the package, with covers (front and back) and insert, assembled just as the finished product will look.

            (c) Electronic files placed on transportable media (diskette, CD-R, Zip disk). The media must contain:

    • Page layout file for each label, cover, and insert page, with fonts embedded.
    • All graphic image files used to create the artwork.
    • All fonts used.

            (d) A printed proof copy, in color if used, of each electronic label, cover, and insert file, at 100 percent size.

            (e) A printed directory of all files supplied on the transportable media.

            (f) A filled out GPO Form 952 (U.S. Government Printing Office Desktop Publishing - Disk Information), for the replication package.

        (4) Packaging and inserts.

            (a.) Available CD-ROM packaging:

    • Clear vinyl pocket (preferred choice), single CD, 5.25 by 5.25 inches, with rear cover single panel insert (4.274 by 4.75 inches printable), front cover flap to hold multipanel insert (4.274 by 4.75 inches printable), and fabric lining for CD protection.
    • Cardboard sleeve, single CD pocket 5 by 5 inches, no flap, printable on two panels.
    • Cardboard sleeve, single CD pocket 5 by 5 inches, with front flap, printable on four panels.
    • Cardboard sleeve, double CD pocket (double wallet) 5 by 5 inches, printable on four panels.
    • Cardboard sleeve, single CD pocket 5 by 5 inches, with two double thick panels and optional slits to hold second or third CD, printable on six panels.
    • Jewel case in single, double, or quad.

            (b) Insert choices are:

    • Single page insert, 4.274 by 4.75 inches, printable on two panels (two sides of a single page).
    • Two page folded insert, 4.274 by 4.75 inches, printable on four panels (two sides of two pages), folded in half.
    • Insert booklet, 4.75 by 4.75 inches, up to 32 panels (for both sides of a 16-page booklet).

        (5) General comments. The following paragraphs depict the general layout for labels and inserts as a guide to show where and what to include. System requirements, User's Guide instructions, etc., are expected to vary with each CD-ROM package developed. Clear vinyl pockets are the preferred packaging choice, because they are easier to mail, do not crack or break, and have a front flap pocket that can hold a combined front cover, User's Guide, and rear cover, in one multipage booklet.

    b. CD-ROM label information. Refer to figure H-1 for text placement and requirements for a CD-ROM label. All numbers used are for illustration purposes only. The label for a CD-ROM containing unclassified material will be printed in black ink on white stock, without borders, set in a bolded sans serif font. If the CD-ROM contains classified information, the label will be printed in red ink. The following information should be included:

        (1) CD Number. The first centered line at the top of the CD-ROM will show the CD number. Each CD-ROM will have a separate CD number.

        (2) Army Training Requirements and Resource System Number, or IMI Unit Training. The ATRRS number, if required, will be centered under the CD number. If only for unit training, use "IMI Unit Training" instead of the ATRRS number. If both part of a course and unit training, center the ATRRS number first and "IMI Unit Training" directly below.

        (3) Product Title. The title should be centered below the ATRRS number, or above "IMI Unit Training" at the top of the CD-ROM. Indicate below the title if this is disc 1 of 1, 1 of 2, etc.

        (4) Phase Title/Number/Lesson Title/Version. Indicate Phase Title, Module, Number, Lesson Title, and Version, if applicable, below the CD-ROM center, placed above the date.

        (5) Classification. The classification will be to the right of the CD-ROM center. If the IMI contains classified information, print the CD-ROM label in red ink. All classified IMI material will be safeguarded and handled according to AR 380-5, and TRADOC Supplement 1 thereto, and other DoD directives.

        (6) Logo. An optional graphic or school logo may be placed left of the CD-ROM center.

        (7) Date. Indicate the month and year approved for replication and distribution below the center hole of the CD-ROM. A version number or letter (i.e., Version A) may be placed next to the date, and separated by a comma. Indicate revisions as "Revised" followed by the date of the revision, on the same line as the course date, or the line below.

        (8) Producer. The words "PRODUCED BY THE UNITED STATES ARMY," in capital letters, will be centered at the outer edge of the CD-ROM, or straight across the bottom, below the date.

    c. CD-ROM front cover information. Figure H-2 shows requirements for the CD-ROM front cover information. The front cover will also be the front cover for the User's Guide insert.

        (1) CD Number. The first line at the upper left of the label will show the CD number.

        (2) ATRRS Number. The first line at the upper right of the label will show the ATRRS number.

 

Figure H-1. Requirements for CD-ROM labels

        (3) Product Title. The CD-ROM title will be centered in the upper third of the actual label. The title should not exceed four lines (short titles are preferred). Indicate below the title if this is disc 1 of 1, 1 of 2, etc.

        (4) Module/Lesson Title. The Module and/or Lesson Title shall be below the CD-ROM title.

        (5) Logo. An optional school logo may be centered on the cover.

        (6) Date. The month and year of course approval will be indicated in the center, below the logo, and above the producer line. A version number or letter (i.e., Version A) may be placed next to the date, and separated by a comma. Indicate revisions as "Revised," followed by the date of the revision, on the same line as the course date, or the line below.

        (7) Producer. At the bottom of the cover, centered above the classification, place the words "PRODUCED BY THE UNITED STATES ARMY".

        (8) Classification. The classification level will be centered at the bottom. Classification level (Secret or higher) will be printed in RED. The applicable foreign disclosure statement will be placed above the classification, if other than unlimited distribution.

Figure H-2. CD-ROM front cover information.

    d. CD-ROM rear cover or jewel case tray information. Figure H-3 shows requirements for a CD-ROM rear cover insert for a clear vinyl pocket. The dimensions for a rear cover insert are 4.8 by 4.8 inches, with 4.274 by 4.75 inches printable. The clear vinyl pocket also makes a separate rear cover insert unnecessary, by allowing the information to be put on the rear cover of the User's Guide insert. Eliminating the rear cover insert, and putting the information of the User's Guide booklet is preferred. Figure H-4 shows the information in the jewel case tray cover format. Include the following information:

        (1) CD number. The first line at the upper left of the rear cover will show the CD number.

        (2) ATRRS Number. The first line at the upper right of the rear cover will show the ATRRS number.

        (3) Product Title. The title of the CD-ROM will be centered on the line immediately under the ATRRS Number. Indicate below the title if this is disc 1 of 1, 1 of 2, etc.

        (4) Recommended Minimum System Requirements. Identify minimum system requirements below the title of the CD-ROM. System requirements shall include the minimum and recommended software (browser, plug-in, runtime, etc.,) and hardware (sound card, graphics adapter, input device, synthesizer, etc.,) required to install and take the instruction on the CD-ROM.

        (5) Operating Instructions and Installation Requirements. Provide instructions as to how courseware is to be operated and installed. If the CD-ROM version is Internet-ready, include the statement "This courseware is optimized for delivery via the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser, version 5.01 (or higher)."

Figure H-3. CD-ROM rear cover information

        (6) Comments Addressee. Provide name and official mailing address of courseware proponent, to include an E-mail address. Indicate whether material is copyrighted.

        (7) Classification. The classification level will be centered at the bottom. If the CD-ROM contains classified material, print the classification (Secret or higher) in RED.

        (8) Spine. Indicate the CD-ROM title and CD number on each spine. Include the classification in RED letters if Secret or higher. A clear vinyl pocket case does not require spines.

    e. CD-ROM User's Guide (back of front cover) information. Figure H-5 shows design requirements for a CD-ROM User's Guide. The User's Guide should not exceed 32 panels (for both sides of a 16-page booklet) to include front and back covers. The front cover will also be the cover for the User's Guide booklet or insert.

        (1) CD Number. The first line, at the upper left of the User's Guide, will show the CD Number. It will be opposite the ATRRS number.

        (2) ATRRS Number. The first line, at the upper right of the User's Guide, will show the ATRRS number. It will be opposite the CD Number

        (3) Identification of User's Guide. The words "USER'S GUIDE" will be centered on the line under the CD Number and ATRRS number.

Figure H-4. CD-ROM jewel case tray cover information

        (4) Title. The title should be centered immediately under the words "USER'S GUIDE." Indicate below the title if this is disc 1 of 1, 1 of 2, etc.

        (5) Date and version number. Center the date and version number on the line immediately under the title.

        (6) Instructions. Provide any information that helps the student in the use of this CD-ROM courseware to include-

            (a) Course objectives.

            (b) "How to" section.

            (c) User progress reports.

            (d) Testing procedures.

            (e) Software installation.

            (f) Troubleshooting guide.

            (g) Other special instructions.

        (7) Troubleshooting. Use the following technical troubleshooting statement to assist users, if problems arise getting the CD-ROM to work:

For technical assistance, Monday through Friday, during normal duty hours, students may call the ATSC Help Desk at 1-800-ASK-ATSC, or visit the ATSC Help Desk web page any time at http://www.atsc.army.mil/HELPDESK/.

        (8) Page Numbers. Number all pages within the booklet insert, excluding the covers. Place the page number on the lower outside edge of the page. No page number is required if the User's Guide is a single panel or page.

        (9) Classification. The classification level will be centered at the bottom. Classification level (Secret or higher) will be printed in RED.

Figure H-5. CD-ROM User's Guide (back of front cover)

Section II
Specifications for Television Videotape Jacket Insert

H-2. Television videotape jacket insert specifications.

    a. TRADOC schools will develop customized TVT jacket inserts. These TVT inserts serve to inform users of Department of the Army Visual Information Production and Distribution videotapes in a more effective manner. Visually appealing to the eye, these TVT jacket inserts will be tailored to provide training information about the video to the target audience for which intended. (See fig H-6)

    b. Follow the steps below to develop a TVT jacket insert:

        (1) Television videotape jacket inserts. Television videotape inserts will be developed and inserted into a clear plastic case. The clear plastic cases will accommodate a VHS -inch videotape.

        (2) Television videotape jacket information.

    (a) Front jacket cover. The front portion of the TVT insert will contain the title, TRADOC logo, and words "UNITED STATES ARMY." Indicate if this TVT is part of a series.

    (b) Spine Information. The spine will contain the title of the production, running time, PIN, and TVT Release Number. Indicate if this TVT is part of a series.

    (c) Rear jacket cover. The rear will contain the title of the production, production facility, PIN and Release Numbers, the words "UNITED STATES ARMY," a brief summary statement describing the content of the video, and any other information that might be applicable to the TVT production itself.

    (d) Replication. Include camera-ready copies of the TVT jacket insert, and an electronic copy of the artwork file, when the final package is submitted for mass replication.

Figure H-6. Television videotape jacket

 

Appendix I
Individual Trial Validation

I-1. Overview.

    a. Individual trials are an important part of development, and the first step in the validation process. The entire course does not have to be completed before conducting trials.

        (1) Trials are conducted by testing the IMI material individually, on three to five soldiers from the target audience, during the development phase.

        (2) The purpose of testing the IMI, is to determine weaknesses, errors, or problems in the IMI and it's supporting material.

    b. Selecting volunteers for trials. A great deal of care should be used when selecting volunteers to participate in the individual trials and validations.

        (1) If volunteers do not fall within the predetermined range, tryout results can be skewed. Thus, volunteer performance cannot be generalized to the target audience.

        (2) Volunteers selected for the tryouts should be from the target audience, and fall within the predetermined range of-

    • Aptitude.
    • Skills.
    • Attitude.
    • Prior knowledge.
    • Prerequisite completion.
    • Background experience.

        (3) Volunteers for the trials should be selected from the upper percentage ranges in aptitude and background because-

            (a) These volunteers are often more likely to point out and analyze weaknesses in the instruction and materials.

            (b) If better volunteers cannot learn the material, less capable students may not be able to learn the material.

        (4) Volunteers who pass the pretest need not be eliminated from trials.

    c. Purpose of trials. It is important to explain to the participants the purpose of trials, and what is expected of them. Explain the procedures that will be used in administering the IMI. Emphasize the following:

        (1) Developmental testing is an extremely important part of the development process.

        (2) By participating in testing, volunteers have become extremely important members of the development team.

        (3) Volunteers are not being evaluated, the courseware is.

        (4) Volunteers should do their best on the test; however, their test scores will not be used for any purpose except to evaluate the material.

        (5) Their feedback is necessary in determining adequacy of the IMI.

    d. Observer's role. During the individual's trials, the instructional developer should-

        (1) Closely observe volunteers as they use the materials.

        (2) Make careful note of where volunteers seem to have problems or uncertainties.

        (3) Administer the relevant test item at the appropriate time.

        (4) Get the volunteers view about the difficulties encountered during the tryout.

    e. Conduct the trial. To conduct the trial-

        (1) Administer a student profile sheet (see fig I-1 below) to ensure that each participant belongs to the target audience.

 

Student Number: ______________ Date: _____________

Name: (Optional)
Last: ________________ First: _____________________ MI:_______

Unit: ___________________________________

Grade: ____________ Present MOS: __________

Time in MOS: Years ______ Months _________

School trained in present MOS: No____ Yes_____

Length of time in service: Years ______ Months _____ Days _______

Title of your present job: ______________________________

Length of time in present job: Years ______ Months ______

Secondary MOS: _______

Time in secondary MOS: Years _______ Months _______

School trained in secondary MOS: Yes _______ No _________

High school graduate: No _____ Yes _____

Years completed, if No: ________

General equivalency diploma: No ____ Yes ____

AFQT or GT score: _____

College graduate: No ___ Yes ____

Years completed, if No: ______

LEGEND:
AFQT--Armed Forces Qualification Test
GT-general technical

 

Figure I-1. Sample student profile sheet

        (2) Administer the IMI.

        (3) Monitor and evaluate all soldier comments.

        (4) Administer the user evaluation upon completion of each trial.

        (5) Evaluate all volunteer and observer comments.

        (6) Compile all required changes to the material.

    f. Revise IMI. Ensure all required changes have been made before validations.

I-2. Determine criticality standards.

    a. Criticality standards-

    (1) Reflect the importance of the objective. They are used during developmental testing, to determine if the courseware was taught adequately.

    (2) Specify the percentage of soldiers that must pass the objectives the first time, after completing the lesson. When a standard of 80 percent is set, 80 percent of the target audience sample is required to pass on the first try.

    (3) Answer a series of critical questions concerning the objectives.

    (4) Use this percentage to select the proper sequential validation chart or the minimum acceptable percentage of soldiers that must pass when the fixed sample testing method is used.

    b. Follow the steps below to determine criticality standards:

        (1) Answer the series of critical questions on Decision Aid 7-1, Criticality Standard Rating Sheet. (See app K, Decision Aid 4)

        (2) Total the numeric values of the responses. (See app K, Decision Aid 4)

        (3) Look up the total numerical score for each objective on the Conversion Guide, Decision Aid 5 (app K), to determine-

    (a) The criticality standard (percentage).

    (b) The minimum acceptable number of students that must pass when using fixed sample validation.

    (c) The sequential validation chart to use for sequential validation method.

    (4) When the TLO cannot be performed, unless any one or more of its "ELOs" are mastered, those ELOs should have a criticality standard of 100. It is not always practical or cost-effective to attempt to train to this level. Be realistic when determining the final criticality standard.

I-3. Plan and coordinate for validation. After the approved validation plan is in hand, careful planning and concurrent coordination assures that the required assets and personnel are available when needed. Follow the procedures below to prepare for validation:

    a. Review validation plan.

    b. Establish a POC at the validation site. Begin coordination with POC 60 days before validation date, and maintain close coordination with other supporting personnel.

    c. Ensure students have been scheduled.

    d. Verify availability of supporting personnel, facilities, and equipment.

    e. Verify program software to ensure-

(1) All computer functions and features are fully and accurately supported.

        (2) The program branches correctly.

        (3) The program does not crash.

    f. Correct errors in program software before validation.

    g. Duplicate all forms, charts, and questionnaires.

    h. Learn how to plot results on charts, and document deficiencies.

    i. Learn how to interpret charts and findings.

    j. Load courseware on equipment, and verify performance.

I-4. Conduct validation.

    a. Once courseware has been completed and verified, according to the quality control procedures established in chapter 2, it is time to validate the course. Validation determines if the IMI accomplishes its intended purpose. Validate the IMI materials to-

        (1) Verify their training effectiveness.

        (2) Determine quality improvements in training products and materials.

    b. Follow the steps below to conduct IMI validations.

        (1) Inform students of the validation process, and their role in the process.

        (2) Have trainees complete the profile sheet (see fig I-1) and determine if they meet the criteria for the target population.

        (3) Administer the pretest to the validation population, to determine if they are masters or nonmasters.

        (4) Determine if the course has prerequisite requirements; ensure the soldier has mastered the prerequisites. May need a test available to determine mastery and time allotted for this testing.

        (5) Administer the IMI and posttest to the nonmasters only.

    (6) Have trainees complete the questionnaire at figure I-2.

    (7) Collect, consolidate, and plot validation data.

    (8) Analyze the data.

    (9) Prepare the validation report.

            (a) Describe validation method.

            (b) Prepare findings and inferences.

            (c) Determine responsibility for correcting IMI (i.e., contractor or in-house).

            (d) Provide recommendations, corrections, and, if needed, a requirement for revalidation.

        (10) Revise the courseware.

            (a) Decide actions to be taken to correct any deficiencies noted in the validation report.

            (b) Assign responsibilities for correcting deficiencies.

            (c) Provide guidelines for making corrections.

            (d) Verify required corrections are accomplished.

            (e) Make changes to the adjunctive reference materials that were unclear to the students.

        (11) Revalidate the lesson, if more than 10 percent of any lesson is changed.

        (12) Obtain approval of the validated IMI.

I-5. Determine which validation method to use. There are two major types of formal validation methods that give high reliability-Fixed Sample and Sequential. The method used depends on the number of individuals available for validation. See Decision Aid 6 (app K) to determine which validation method to use.

I-6. Procedures for using the fixed sample method of validation.

    a. Fixed Sample Validation. The fixed sample method is based on the percentage of the target audience passing the objective (s) on a posttest. This method can give a high reliability of the effectiveness of the instructional material(s). To use it, the sample size of the target audience (those who meet all prerequisite training requirements, and do not pass the pretest on the instructional materials(s) to be validated) must be at least 30 participants.

    b. Posttest. The posttest is given to 30 students. The percentage of those passing the objective(s) is compared to the criticality standard previously established. If the number of students passing equals or exceeds this standard on the objective(s), the material has been validated. The following example uses this procedure:

Sample size: 30

Test criteria: 80 percent (passing score on the posttest)

Criticality standard: 85 percent (objective importance)

Number of people passing: 26 (number of individuals achieving or exceeding 80 percent on the posttest)

Percent of people passing: = (26/30 = 86.7 percent)

Course Name: __________________________________

Date: _______________ Student #: __________________

Instructions:

There are no right or wrong answers to the questions on this survey. One of the major sources for the improvement of training is student feedback. The information provided by objectively answering this survey will help determine what changes may need to be made in this course. Therefore, it is not necessary to identify yourself. Objectivity in your input is all that is requested.

Marking Instructions:

Put an X on the appropriate response. We especially welcome your comments on items in which you disagree or were not satisfied.

1. Military Rank: __________.

2. Number of years in the military:.

A. 5-10
B. 10-12
C. 12-15
D. 15-20
E. Other

3. How many other computer-based instructional courses have you taken?

A. None
B. 1 to 2
C. 3 to 5
D. 6 or more

4. How would you rate your level of competence with computers?

A. Superior: Able to program.

B. Excellent: Able to use most any operating system or application software.

C. Good: Able to use at least one operating system (e.g., DOS, Windows) and some software applications (e.g., word processor).

D. Fair: Able to use at least one word-processing program without assistance (e.g., WordPerfect, Microsoft Word).

E. Poor: Not able to use a word-processing program without help. No experience at all with computers.

5. The courseware was easy to install or access.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

 

Figure I-2. Sample student course opinion questionnaire

6. Computer-based instruction is an effective way to learn this subject matter.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

7. I enjoyed learning this subject matter by computer.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

8. Instructions and directions (course menu, help screens, and module instructions) are easy to follow and understand.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

9. The course is written in clear, easy-to-read English.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

10. The course flows logically and smoothly from frame to frame.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

11. The objectives of the course are met.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

 

Figure I-2. Sample student course opinion questionnaire (cont)

12. This course helped me learn the subject matter content.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

13. The lesson content is presented in an interesting manner.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

14. Instructional feedback on questions in the course is clear.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

15. Instructional feedback on questions in the course is nonthreatening.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

16. The graphics benefit the instructional quality of the course.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

17. The examples in the course are relevant.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

Figure I-2. Sample student course opinion questionnaire (cont)

18. Terms and concepts are explained effectively.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

19. More training would be needed to perform the skills taught in the product.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

20. This course will improve job performance.

A. Strongly agree
B. Agree
C. No opinion
D. Disagree
E. Strongly disagree

21. The course was:

A. Too long
B. Too short
C. About right
D. Undecided

22. How much time did you spend going through the course? _______

23. Were you frustrated or bored at any point? If yes, where?

A. Yes

B. No

__________________________________________________________

24. Was there anything in particular you liked about this course? If yes, what?

A. Yes

B. No

__________________________________________________________

25. Was there anything in particular you disliked about this course? If yes, what?

A. Yes

B. No


Figure I-2. Sample student course opinion questionnaire (cont)

26. Additional Comments.

Figure I-2. Sample student course opinion questionnaire (cont)

    c. Interpretation of validity. In the above example, the objective has been validated, since the number of individuals passing (86.7 percent) exceeds the criticality standard of 85 percent. The instructional materials(s) for this objective can be considered valid.

I-7. Procedures for using the sequential sample method of validation.

    a. Sequential Sample Validation. The sequential method is a variation of the fixed sample method. It also yields a high reliability of the effectiveness of the instructional material(s). The sample size of the target audience is normally less than 30.

    b. Procedure. The sequential method uses a plotting chart, which has been mathematically structured to provide statistically valid results when the sample size is 30 or less. Additional information on sequential validation may be found on the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training (DCSOPS&T) Training Development Management Division web site.

    c. Procedures for plotting the results. If you are testing one student at a time, plot the results of each objective ("Go" or "No Go") before giving another test. If two or more students are tested at a time, the test results are plotted in random order.

    d. Determine random plotting order. There are three commonly accepted methods of determining the plotting order:

        (1) Assign number to students as they arrive at the test site.

        (2) Have the students pull a number out of a hat.

        (3) Print and shuffle the test results after all tests are completed. Take a test result from the stack and determine "Go" or "No Go." Plot the results on the appropriate chart.

    e. Plotting data on sequential charts. Follow procedures in table I-1 for plotting the results on the appropriate sequential testing chart.

Table I-1
Plotting data

Step

Example

1. If the first trial for the objective is a "Go," place an X in column 1, row 0.

2. If the first trial for the objective is a "No Go," place an X in column 1, row 1.

3. Plot each successive "Go" horizontally along the same row.

4. Plot each "No Go" diagonally (up one row and to the right).

5. If each trial is a "Go," the chart will look like this. Notice that the 5th "Go" moved the plotting into the Area of Acceptance. No more testing or plotting is needed. The objective has been validated.

6. If each trial is a "No Go," the chart will look like this. Notice that the 5th "No Go" moved the plotting into the Area of Rejection. Stop testing until material has been revised.

 

    f. Example. The filled out sequential testing chart for this example is at figure I-3. Here are some details pertaining to the chart:

        (1) Sample size 20.

        (2) Student 4 and 10 got a "No Go."

        (3) Students 1-3, 5-9, and 11-20 got a "Go" on module 1.

        (4) Students test scores were plotted on Sequential Testing Chart 4 (80 percent level).

 

Figure I-3. Example of sequential chart plotted

    g. Interpretation of validity. Module 1 is valid for the objective, based on plotting the students' test scores in the prearranged (random) order, and the 18th student's score putting the plotting into the Area of Acceptance.

    h. Administer questionnaire. After the student has completed the course, an opinion questionnaire to obtain feedback on various aspects of the course must be completed. Sample Student Course Opinion Questionnaire (fig I-2) may be used.

I-8. Prepare the validation report and obtain approval. Prepare a validation report to document the results, and obtain proponent approval. Revise the IMI, based on the changes recommended in the validation report. A validation statement must be submitted as part of the Master Materials Package for replication and distribution of the IMI product.


Appendix J
Validate Tests

J-1. Overview. Chapter 5 covered IMI test design, development, and implementation decisions. This appendix provides additional information that deals specifically with test validation, and the primary steps involved in validation of test items.

J-2. Content review. The content/construct review is used to ensure that the test items match the objectives, and is constructed without flaws and IAW standard practices for performance and performance-based items. The steps in conducting a content review follow:

    a. Select, as a minimum, one SME (other than the test developer) and one skilled test designer/developer (usually an instructional systems specialist other than the developer) to perform the review.

    b. Conduct the review of each test item using Decision Aid 3, Initial Content Review Questionnaire, found in appendix K.

    c. Provide feedback from this review to the test developer.

    d. After test item changes have been made, repeat the initial content review process (steps 1-3) for any test items that underwent major revision.

J-3. Master/Nonmaster Test Item Analysis. One way of "validating" test items is to look at their ability to discriminate between performers (masters) and nonperformers (nonmasters). A simple method of determining the discriminatory power of a test item, or test item set, is to administer the item/set to a sample group, composed of individuals that are clear (proven) performers of the objective being tested, and another group composed of individuals that are clear nonmasters. The performance of the two groups is then compared, to determine whether the masters consistently can answer the question correctly, while the nonmasters consistently cannot answer correctly.

    a. A statistic (the phi coefficient) is used to compare the two groups. The coefficient can range from a -1.0 to a +1.0.

    b. If the coefficient computed exceeds a certain predetermined threshold level, the item is accepted as an adequate discriminator. If the coefficient computed is lower than a predetermined threshold, the item is tentatively rejected, identified for revision, and reanalyzed. In setting the threshold, the lower it is set, the more likely "suspect" items will be identified. If the threshold is set too high, no items will "pass," and many more items than perhaps necessary will have to be reviewed. (A positive .30 is often the lowest threshold set).

    c. As for many statistics, the larger the number of individuals in the respective master and nonmaster groups, the better assurance that the statistic is giving valid information. The minimum size of each group is dependent upon the number of items to be evaluated, and the number of learners in one administration of the items. Minimally, at least 5-8 in each category should be used.

    d. Questioning the masters that got the question wrong, and (to a lesser degree) the nonmasters that got it right, will provide valuable information for item revision.

    e. During this procedure, test administration instructions are assessed to their adequacy, and revised as necessary. Data is also collected to assist in setting cutoff (pass/fail) scores (points).

    f. After each test item is determined acceptable, it may be used for the conduct of individual and group trials of instructional materials.

    g. During the instructional material trials, immediately correct any problems with any test item, so it may be used for instructional material assessment and validation. Based upon the type of test item, additional data that can be used to assist in setting cutoff points may be collected during these trials.

    h. Use, or modify, the following common steps, to assist in obtaining information to improve test items:

        (1) Administer the test (consisting of the new test items) to the tryout sample.

        (2) If the test is to be a timed test, collect the time it takes each learner to complete the test to assist in establishing the official time for the test.

        (3) Obtain feedback from the tryout sample, by requesting they identify and comment on any problem questions. Use checklist in table J-1 for this purpose.   

        (4) Perform appropriate criterion referenced analysis on the data collected.

        (5) Use the feedback from steps 3 and 4, to decide which items to revise or replace. (The test developer will make this determination.)

    i. During tryouts to provide feedback to improve quality of test items, test reviewers and learners may use table J-1.

Table J-1
Provide feedback

Question

Comments

1. Was any test instructions unclear or confusing?

 

2. Was any question confusing?

 

3. Did any question have more than one correct answer or no correct answer?

 

4. Did any question have clues to the correct answer either in that question or in a previous question?

 

5. Were any of the incorrect answer choices unrealistic?

 

6. Did any question have unclear or confusing graphics?

 

7. Did any question have language or graphics that were offensive or contained bias or confusion related to race, gender, or cultural differences?

 

8. Were any instructions on how to respond to each test item unclear or confusing?

 


Appendix K
Checklists and Decision Aids

K-1. Checklists. Checklists 1 through 9 are provided below.

Checklist 1. Team Capabilities

Decision Aid

Team Capabilities

Yes

No

Assessing current training materials.

   

Designing learning objectives and content.

   

Selecting appropriate media options.

   

Designing computer and visual information options (graphics) to meet instructional requirements.

   

Constructing and using shot list.

   

Constructing flowcharts.

   

Conducting videotape and digital video production and post-production.

   

Writing scripts and simulation sequences.

   

Using motion and simulation sequences.

   

Identifying personnel and hardware requirements.

   

Verifying content and accuracy of training materials.

   

Conducting in-process reviews and quality control checks.

   

Planning and conducting validation and evaluation.

   

Checklist 2. Determining Specialized Skills Required for the Team

IMI Requirement

Team Composition Requirement

Special functions or effects not available with authoring software.

IT specialist

Numerous computer generated graphics, or original artwork.

Graphic imaging personnel

Upgraded, new equipment, or addition of a network.

IT specialist

Audio, video, still photography or animation.

Media specialists

Checklist 3. Modification of Support Level

Support Category

Results of Support Deficit

Action to Alter Deficit

Management Support

May have resourcing problems. Lack of support may flow down through organization.

Inform management of IMI advantages and benefits. Involve managers in the decision process or planning phase.

Staff Support

Development team may resist change and be uncooperative during implementation.

Provide training on IMI to reduce resistance. Convince staff that changing roles does not mean less responsibility. Involve staff in decision process.

Staff Availability

May not have the personnel to develop IMI.

Add staff to current force. Defer current commitments. Contract out IMI development.

Staff Skills

Learning curve will be high. Development will proceed slowly.

Train staff to perform IMI development. Contract for development. Add experienced staff to current force.

Staff Dedication

Lesson revisions increase with IMI staff changes.

Develop and enforce lesson conventions to reduce potential for format changes.

Checklist 4. Contractor Support Evaluation

Item

Decision Factor

Yes

No

1

Scope and schedule exceed in-house capability (see note).

   

2

Inadequate staffing support for IMI (see note).

   

3

Adequate staff available but inexperienced with IMI.

   

4

Staff dedication to IMI unreasonable.

   

5

Contract funding available.

   
  • See ATSC Individual Training Support Directorate web site for information on the contracting process and procedures for IMI.
  • For specific information on contract deliverables, see TRADOC Reg 350-70, Chapter II-7.

NOTE: If the answer is "yes," this may be adequate support for pursuing contractor assistance. For additional information on contracting for IMI development see below:

Checklist 5. Sample Checklist for IMI Review and Approval

Item

Suspense

Initials

Date

Lesson Name: _________________________

Primary Author: _______________________

Start Date: ____________________________

Final Due Date: ________________________

     

Product Review/Approval Sequence

     

Lesson Design Courseware Developer

Subject Matter Expert

Instructional Designer

Team Manager

     

Lesson Flowchart Courseware Developer Instructional Designer

     

Storyboard Courseware Developer

Subject Matter Expert

Instructional Designer

Team Manager

     

Programmed IMI Courseware Developer

Subject Matter Expert

Instructional Designer

Quality Specialist

Evaluator

Team Manager/Project Manager

     

Checklist 6. Sample Checklist for SME Design Review

Item Name:

Reviewer Name: ________________________________
Review Date: ___________________________________

Review Item

Comments

Project Manager Verification

ELO to lesson objective.

   

ELO sequenced properly.

   

Practice items related to ELO.

   

Practice items at proper difficulty level for anticipated students.

   

Practice items provide adequate practice on ELO.

   

Practice item feedback identifies correct answer.

   

Critical objective tested.

   

Test items to test objectives.

   

Test items at proper difficulty level for anticipated students.

   

Test item feedback identifies correct answer.

   

Checklist 7. Sample Checklist for Team Leader
and Project Manager Final Lesson Review

Item Name:

Reviewer Name: ________________________________
Review Date: ___________________________________

Review Item

Comments

Project Manager Verification

Initiating routing commands accesses correct display.

   

Lesson routing conforms with design documents.

   

Text is easy to read and understand.

   

Graphics are clear and easy to read.

   

Video scenes match text.

   

Graphics match text.

   

Animated graphics appear to work properly.

   

Title page displays correct lesson title.

   

Lesson menu is consistent with sections.

   

Section contents match section titles.

   

Checklist 8. Sample Checklist for Discrepancy Documentation

Discrepancy

Item Name: ____________________________________
Reviewer Name: _______________________________
Review Date: __________________________________

 

Product Type: Design Flowchart Storyboard Lesson
Discrepancy #:____________________________________

Lesson Name: _____________________________________

Location of Discrepancy: Page______ Paragraph______ Line______

Discrepancy Description:

Suggested Corrective Action:

Discrepancy Resolution Sign-off

Initials

Date

Discrepancy Found:

   

Correction Made:

   

Correction Verified:

   

Discrepancy Closed:

   

Discrepancy Remains Open:

   

Corrective Action to Close:

   

Checklist 9. Sample IMI Review Checklist

Principles

Comments

Overall principles

1. Program includes the events of instruction or a rationale for omitting an event.

   

2. The instructional strategy is appropriate for the content type.

   

3. Practice provided is appropriate for the content type.

   

4. Objectives provide complete coverage of content to be taught.

   

5. Instruction and test items correlate with objectives.

   

Information to be included in a storyboard

1. Identification information is complete.

   

2. Programming notes are complete.

   

3. Audio script is complete.

   

4. Video information is complete.

   

5. Graphic and animation information is complete.

   

6. Text information is complete.

   

Interactivity

1. Provides frequent opportunities for meaningful interaction.

   

2. Content is chunked into small segments and questions (with feedback); periodic reviews, check on learning, and summaries are built in.

   

3. Numerous questions are included, but do not interrupt the continuity of the instructional flow.

   

4. Questions follow the instruction, to force students to search for, and review, necessary information.

   

5. Students are asked questions related to content that has been taught, requiring them to use previously learned knowledge to answer them.

   

6. Questions are at the application, rather then the memory, level.

   

7. Rhetorical questions are included to get students to think about the content, stimulate their curiosity, or as a transition between frames.

   

8. Opportunity is provided where the learner may discover information through active exploration.

   

Learner control

1. Students are given the appropriate amount of learner control.

   

2. Learner control designed can be implemented within available resources.

   

3. Students are always given control over the following elements: pacing, support information, navigation, and termination.

   

Feedback

1. Feedback is on the same screen with the question and student response.

   

2. Feedback immediately follows the student response.

   

3. Feedback verifies correctness and explains why.

   

4. For incorrect responses, students are given a hint, and the opportunity to try again.

   

5. Feedback addresses student misconceptions, or lack of knowledge and skills.

   

6. Feedback is positive, and does not encourage incorrect responses.

   

7. In a simulation, instructional feedback is provided, in addition to simulation responses.

   

General principles

1. The program is user-friendly.

   

2. The program is menu-driven.

   

3. A browsing alternative is provided.

   

4. Help functions are provided.

   

5. Student record tracking is provided.

   

6. An optional lesson on navigation and screen functions is provided.

   

7. A lesson on input device operation is provided, when necessary.

   

8. Messages are provided when the wait to get a response is long.

   

9. Error messages are informative and low-key.

   

10. Cues are provided to indicate completion of an instructional segment.

   

11. The authoring language is capable of implementing all features designed.

   

12. The program provides clear instructions on how the student is to respond.

   

Programming

1. Programming functions perform as designed.

   

2. Program standards are followed (e.g., screen type, screen layout, questions and feedback, sequence of presentation).

   

Audio

1. The script is appropriate for the target audience (language, knowledge, and vocabulary).

   

2. The style and tone are appropriate for the target audience.

   

3. The script is conversational in nature.

   

4. The script language is simple, active, and direct.

   

5. Sentences are short.

   

6. Abbreviations, technical jargon, unfamiliar terms, and ambiguous words are avoided, or defined, if used.

   

7. Transitions between concepts are clear.

   

8. Every piece of audio has a corresponding visual that is related.

   

9. There are no long pauses in a visual waiting for an extended audio to finish. Audio segments are not longer than 20 seconds.

   

10. Audio pace is varied. There are breaks of silence to bridge scenes, and process information.

   

11. The audio does not contradict or interfere with the visual.

   

12. The script is written in a format suitable for professional talents and narrators.

   

13. Subtle sound effects are used as cues.

   

14. Music is used judiciously to change the pace, add variety, and alert the students of transitions.

   

15. The script is short and simple.

   

16. Information is chunked appropriately.

   

17. Only relevant information is included in the script.

   

18. Audio requirements can be implemented within production limits.

   

General

1. Do not clutter screens.

   

2. Use windows to group and separate information on the screen.

   

3. Use methods to orient students in the program (e.g., placement of information, consistency of screen layout).

   

4. Present information graphically, when appropriate.

   

5. Chunk small amounts of information one at a time, through use of windows, icon buttons, and screen buildup.

   

6. Use cueing techniques to attract and direct student attention (e.g., arrows, labels, color, and highlight).

   

7. Fade attention-directing cues, to facilitate learning transfer.

   

8. Use color appropriately.

   

9. When simulating equipment, use realistic colors, do not clutter screen, and place related text and directions in boxes and windows.

   

10. Position information appropriately on the screen (location of key information and menu bar).

   

Video

1. Include sketches of shots, camera movements, and shot angles that are included.

   

2. The motion video format used is appropriate for the content (e.g., demonstration, simulation, and lecture).

   

3. Audio and video reinforce each other.

   

4. Use repetition judiciously. Repeat only critical information.

   

5. Video sequences will not last longer than 20 seconds.

   

6. Ensure visual message (e.g., graphics, animation, still frame, step stills, motion video) are appropriate for the content.

   

7. Use appropriate motion video versus still frame and step stills.

   

Text display

1. Start paragraphs with main idea, and follow with topically related text.

   

2. Ensure the first sentence in a sequence is short.

   

3. Present a new idea with information the learner already knows.

   

4. Use complete words, not contractions.

   

5. Ensure cautions and exceptions come before the instructions.

   

6. Break text into discrete paragraphs and units.

   

7. Left justify text (no right justification). Center headings and titles.

   

8. Use paging (not scrolling) for large amounts of text.

   

9. Use uppercase only for emphasis and titles.

   

10. Do not use hyphens, except for compound words.

   

11. Omit punctuation abbreviation, mnemonics, and acronyms.

   

12. Ensure displays are predictable and regular. Ensure textual cues and messages to the learner are consistent.

   

13. Separate paragraphs by a blank line.

   

14. Use standard alphabetic characters. Use only those symbols that are known or are being taught.

   

15. Use plenty of white space to separate blocks of information.

   

16. Use headings as content summaries and navigation aids.

   

17. Use lists for serial items.

   

18. Use bullet characters to list information. Each item in the list will start with an uppercase character.

   

19. Text groupings will be no longer than seven rows, whenever possible.

   

20. Balance text mass with a diagram, video image, or graphic.

   

21. Use tables to present and integrate complex information.

   

22. Use attention-getting techniques appropriately (e.g., highlight, bold, underline, color).

   

23. Ensure spelling, grammar, and punctuation are correct.

   

24. Primary material is placed at the upper-left corner of screen.

   

25. Ensure answers to the questions "How come?" and "So What?" are answered.

   

Graphics and Animation

1. Use of graphics/animation is appropriate for the content.

   

2. When appropriate, use video following a graphic, to enhance learning transfer.

   

3. Avoid biases or stereotypes.

   

4. Use exaggeration and humor appropriately, to heighten student interest and facilitate recall.

   

5. Keep original rendered graphics and animation in a historical file to update courseware.

   

K-2. Decision Aids.

    a. The following matrix (Decision Aid 1) may help in presenting different instructional treatment and practice requirements. Exercise care when using this matrix. There may be other considerations in the assignment of the verb to a specific level of learning. For example:

        (1) Troubleshoot is assigned to "Procedure Learning." However, troubleshoot includes all of the listed levels of learning-especially "Problem Solving."

        (2) Analyze is assigned to "Problem Solving." Analyzing may also just be decomposing an activity to identify the component part/steps that can also fall under "Rule Learning."

Decision Aid 1. Learning Types and Levels of Learning

Knowledge

VERBS

LEVELS OF LEARNING

DEFINITION

Advise
Brief*
Calculate
Define
Identify
Inform

Instruct
List
Name*

Read
Recall
Recommend

Restate
Select
Sort
State
Tell

Fact Learning

The learning of verbal or symbolic information (e.g., names, formulas, facts).

Apply*
Calculate
Compare*
Compute

Encrypt
Evaluate*

Format
Forward

Interpret
Prioritize
Translate

Rule Learning

Learning to use two or more facts in a manner that will provide regularity of behavior in an infinite variation of situations.

Administer*
Archive*
Assemble
Breach
Camouflage
Check*
Collect
Condense
Connect
Debrief
Decontaminate
Delete
Deliver
Destroy
Disassemble
Disconnect
Disengage
Dismantle
Dispatch
Displace
Display
Disseminate
Drive
Emplace
Employ
Erect
Establish
Evacuate

Fuel
Ground
Harden
Implement
Inspect*
Install
Integrate
Intercept
Isolate
Issue
Launch
Log
Lubricate
Maintain Manage
Mount
Move
Navigate
Obtain
Operate
Order
Park
Perform
Plot
Police
Process
Procure
Provide

Publish
Raise
Range
Reach
Reestablish
Refuel
Release
Relocate
Remove
Repair
Replace
Replenish
Secure
Send
Set-up
Stockpile
Store
Submit
Supervise
Take charge
Test
Transmit
Transport
Treat
Troubleshoot
Update
Zero

Procedure Learning

Learning to perform step-by-step actions in the proper sequence.

Allocate
Assign
Collate
Compare*
Confirm
Consolidate
Correlate
Cross-check
Designate

Distribute

Divide
Extract
Finalize
Group
Label

Level
Organize
Realign
Recognize
Redistribute

Reexamine
Reorganize
Restate
Schedule
Select
Sort
Task
Template
Translate
Tune

Discrimination Learning

Learning to group similar and dissimilar items according to their distinct characteristics.

Analyze*
Annotate
Apply*
Change
Combine
Convert

Criticize
Defend
Determine
Draft

Effect*
Locate
Plan

Predict
Produce
Project
Revise
Triage
War game

Problem Solving

Learning to synthesize lower levels of knowledge for the resolution of problems.

Skills

VERBS

LEVELS OF LEARNING

DEFINITION

Detect

Perception (Encoding)

Perception of sensory stimuli that translate into physical performance.

Assault
Fire

Jump
Lift

Turn
Wear

Gross Motor Skills

Learns manual dexterity in the performance of physical skills.

Assist
Challenge
Cross

Delay
Guard
Prepare

Set
Stand to

Readiness

Learning to have readiness to take a particular action.

Control
Hover
Land

Maneuver
Take-off

Track
Stand to

Continuous Movement

Learning to track, make compensatory movements based on feedback.

Adjust
Align
Apply*
Clear
Close
Cover
Displace
Enter

Exchange
Extract
Fire
Input
Ins
Open
Place
Position

Post
Receive
Record
Rotate
Splint
Strike
Support
Sweep

Mechanism

Learning to perform a complex physical skill with confidence and proficiency.

Ambush
Attack
Conduct*
Deploy
Direct
Evade
Infiltrate

Lay
Lead
Load
Occupy
Orient
Pack
Patrol

Prevent
Protect
Recover
Reduce
Relieve
Suppress
Train

Adaptation

Learning to modify a complex physical skill to accommodate a new situation.

Construct
Correct

Employ
Make

Origination

Learning to create a new complex physical skill to accommodate a new situation.

*Verbs with an asterisk should be used with caution IAW TRADOC Reg 350-70, appendix D.

 

    b. The following matrix (Decision Aid 2) may help in determining a way of presenting different instructional treatment and practice requirements. Note: There are other methods of instruction and procedures for presenting these learning types than what is listed here.

Decision Aid 2. Instructional Treatment and Practice Requirements

To learn a

Definition

Level of Processing

Requirement

Purpose

Fact

Unique, one-of-a-kind type of information

Remember

  • Provide tutorial.
  • Use lists, charts, or graphics (with labels) to present facts.
  • Provide drill and practice to reinforce recall.
  • Provide job aid if memorization of the facts is not essential.
  • Provide opportunities to practice facts in context (e.g., in processes or procedures).

Concept

Class of items that share critical common features.

Application

  • Provide tutorial.
  • Present definition, examples, non-examples, and analogies of a concept.
  • When presenting examples and nonexamples, start with clear-cut ones; move to fuzzy ones.
  • Provide drill and practice to reinforce classification.
  • Use new examples and nonexamples in practice.
  • Provide opportunities to practice concepts in context (e.g., in principles).

Principle

Cause-and-effect relationship that results in predictable outcomes.

Application

  • Present guidelines and examples (and perhaps nonexamples) to illustrate a principle.
  • Use graphics, video, or animation.
  • Analogies may help clarify the point.
  • Provide drill and practice to facilitate automatically.
  • Provide problem-solving exercises and simulation to reinforce transfer.

Procedure

Series of clearly defined steps that result in achievement of a job task.

Application

  • Demonstrate steps and provide follow-along practice.
  • Use flowcharts, action/decision tables, and checklists for mental procedures.
  • Use video to demonstrate physical procedures.
  • Provide drill and practice to facilitate automatically.
  • Provide problem-solving exercises and simulation followed by hands-on exercises in real job environment to ensure transfer.

Process

Description of how things work (i.e., what happens)

Application

  • Illustrate flow of the process.
  • Use graphics, animation, or video to portray a process if real objects are involved (e.g., blood flow in human bodies).
  • Use process tables or flow diagrams to present an abstract process (e.g., management process).
  • Analogies may help clarify the point.
  • Provide practice to enhance drill and retention.
  • Provide problem- solving exercises and simulation to reinforce transfer.

    c. Decision Aid 3 is an initial content review questionnaire.

Decision Aid 3. Initial Content Review Questionnaire

Question

Comments (Where possible provide a correction or "fix")

1. Is the question a good measure of the student's ability to perform a key aspect of the evaluated training objective?

 

2. Is the question doctrinally accurate?

 

3. Is the question clear and understandable?

 

4. Does the question have only one correct answer?

 

5. Are the answer choices keyed properly?

 

6. Is the wording/terminology of the question correct?

 

7. Is the question free of clues to the correct answer?

 

8. Are the answer choices attractive to a person unfamiliar with the training objective being evaluated?

 

9. Can an incorrect answer choice be eliminated based simply on common sense, general knowledge, or reading ability?

 

10. Are accompanying graphics and any other materials (e.g., reference extracts) relevant to, and support, the question?

 

11. Do the accompanying materials provide sufficient information to answer the question?

 

12. Are the graphics (and other accompanying materials) clear, readable, and realistic?

 

13. Does the question require the individual to "use" the information in any accompanying materials to get the correct answer (i.e., application question) rather than just find the answer (i.e., reading question)?

 

 

    d. Use Decision Aid 4, below, to determine criticality standard for each objective to be validated.

Decision Aid 4. Learning Objective Criticality Rating Sheet

Directions

Answer the Questions

Objective Number

Answer the questions for each objective.

 

1

2

3

4

5

1. What is the criticality of the training objective on job performance, or what are the consequences of inadequate performance?

a. Very serious. (5 points)

b. Serious. (2 points)

c. Average. (1 point)

d. Negligible. (0 points)

         

2. Does the jobholder have time to consult references or seek other help when required to perform the task? Is immediate action required as, for example, with first aid?

a. Immediate action is required. (5 points)

b. Some degree of urgency is required, but jobholders frequently have time to seek assistance. (2 points)

c. Jobholders almost always have time to seek assistance. (0 points)

         

3. What is the availability of adequately trained jobholders in the field to assist in training?

a. Few available. (5 points)

b. Usually available. (2 points)

c. Almost always available. (0 points)

         

4. Will the training objective be practiced again in subsequent lessons, or is this lesson the only chance to learn the task?

a. This lesson is the only instruction. (5 points)

b. The objective is practiced only twice in subsequent lessons. (2 points)

c. The objective will be practiced many times in remaining lessons. (0 points)

         

Total the scores for each objective.

           

    e. Use Decision Aid 5, to determine criticality standard and sequential chart to use for validation.

Decision Aid 5. Criticality Standard Conversion Guide

Objective Rating
Totals (points)

Criticality Standard (percent)

Sequential Chart No.

Fixed Sample Minimum Passing (sample size 30)

0-2

65

1

20

3-5

70

2

21

6-9

75

3

23

10-13

80

4

24

14-18

85

5

26

19-20

90

6

27

    f. Use Decision Aid 6 to determine the validation method.

Decision Aid 6. Determine the Validation Method

Administer the pretest to target population available for the validation.

Condition

Action

A member of the target population achieves the critical standard or above on the pretest.

Consider the student a master; eliminate from the validation population.

A member of the target population achieves a score lower than the critical standard on the pretest.

Consider the student a nonmaster; include in the validation population.

Thirty nonmasters from the target population are available for the validation at one time.

Use the Fixed Sample Validation method.

Less than 30 nonmasters from the target population are available for the validation at one time.

Use the Sequential Validation method.


Glossary

Section I
Abbreviations

2-D two-dimensional

3-D three dimensional

AIMS-R Automated Instructional Management System-Redesign

ANSI American National Standards Institute

APD Army Publishing Directorate

ASAT Automated Systems Approach to Training

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ATSC Army Training Support Center

ATRRS Army Training Requirements and Resource System

AV audiovisual

AVPRO Audio Visual Production Officer

BOIP Basis of Issue Plan

CAD Course Administrative Data

CATS Combined Army Training Strategy

CBI computer-based instruction

CBT computer-based training

CD-R compact disc-recordable

CD-ROM compact disc-read only memory

CMI computer-managed instruction

CMP Course Management Plan

codec compression/decompression

CONUS continental United States

COR Contracting Officer's Representative

CPU central processing unit

DA Department of the Army

DAVIS Defense Automated Visual Information System

DITIS Defense Instructional Technology Information System

DL distributed learning

DLS distributed learning sites

DoD Department of Defense

DTAC Digitized Training Access Center

DVD digital versatile disk

EIA Electronics Industries Association

ELO enabling learning objective

FAQ frequently asked questions

FPS Frames Per Second

GIF Graphics Interchange Format

HQ headquarters

HTML HyperText Markup Language

Hz hertz

IAW in accordance with

ICW interactive courseware

IEC International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IETM Interactive Electronic Technical Manual

IMDP Instructional Media Design Package

IMI interactive multimedia instruction

IRC Internet Relay Chat

IRE Institute of Radio Engineers

IT information technology

IVD Interactive Video Disc

JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group

KB kilobyte

kHz kilohertz

KP key personnel

LAN local area network

LMS Learning Management System

MACOM major Army command

MB megabyte

MDLS mobile distributed learning sites

MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIL-HDBK Military Handbook

MIL-PRF Military Performance

MIL-STD Military Standard

MHz megahertz

MOI method of instruction

MOS military occupational specialty

MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group

OCONUS outside the continental United States

OCR optical character recognition

POC point of contact

POI program of instruction

QC quality control

PIN Product Identification Number

RAM random access memory

RDL General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library

SAT Systems Approach to Training

SEN Satellite Education Network

SME subject matter expert

SMPTE Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

TATS The Army Training System

TLO terminal learning objective

TNET Teletraining Network

TREDS-R TRADOC Educational Data System-Redesign

TSC Training Support Center

TVT television videotape

VHS Video Home Standard

VI visual information

VI/TSC Visual Information Training Support Center

VTT video teletraining

WAN wide area network

WBT web-based training

WWW world wide web

Section II

Terms

analog format
Data that is represented by infinite variance in some physical quantity, such as voltage or current. Videotapes and videodisc store video in analog format.

animation
The simulation of movement produced by displaying a series of successive images on the screen.

authoring
Using a software package (sometimes called authoring systems, authoring language, or authoring tools) to create courseware.

authoring system
An authoring system combines the components of storyboards (text, graphics, animation, audio, video, and programming and branching notes) into a structured instruction lesson with defined student interactions displayed via computer.

Basis of Issue Plan (BOIP)
A document prescribing the number of items issued to an individual, unit, or military activity.

browser
The software program used to bring up, display, and navigate the WWW. Browsers download HTML and determine how to display the page. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer browsers are the two most common software browsers.

cache
A special storage area for the rapid retrieval of information. Many algorithms exist with regards to cache usage and implementation. A web browser cache stores the page, as well as any embedded graphics and multimedia elements, to prevent downloading the page again upon return. The setup of the system depends on whether the cache files are automatically deleted.

client/server
Technology that distributes the processing of a computer application between two computers. A client, which is normally a PC, performs retrieval of information from a computer on the Internet. The computer that delivers the information is the server. A server both stores information and makes it available to any authorized client who requests the information. The most common example of a server is a file server.

Common Gateway Interface
Common Gateway Interface scripts perform basic functions on the internet such as counting, linking, scoring questions, and other interactive functions of the internet delivered program; i.e., Common Gateway Interface script takes data from the WWW and does something with it.

Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)
Computer-aided instruction, also referred to as "computer-assisted instruction," involves use of computers to aid in the delivery of instruction. Computer-aided instruction exploits computer technology to provide for the storage and retrieval of information for both the instructor and student. Computer-aided instruction usually refers to the use of computers to support instructor-led classroom instruction. Using computers as a presentation media for slides, audio, or motion pictures, which support large or small group instruction, is an example of CAI.

Computer-Based Instruction (CBI)
Course materials presented or controlled by a computer that use multiple requirements for student responses as a primary means of facilitating mastery of a task or supporting skill and knowledge. Computer-based instruction may also be referred to as "computer-based training (CBT)."

Computer-Managed Instruction (CMI)
The use of computers and software to manage the instructional process. Computer-managed instruction functions can include a management administration system designed to-

  • Track student performance over time.
  • Provide information concerning performance trends.
  • Record individual and group performance data.
  • Schedule students, training, resources, and provide support for other training management functions.
  • Computer-managed instruction functions may be used with CBI, CAI, or IMI, based on need.

digital format
Data that is represented by a pattern of discrete fixed values. This information is stored as a series of "1's" and "0's." Hard drives, CD-ROMs, and the Internet store data in a digital format.

Dynamic HyperText Markup Language
The next generation of HTML that describes how text and images are displayed on web pages, and allows absolute positioning and layering of objects on web pages.

electronic guides
A type of electronic publication that provides information, instruction, or help.

Electronic Management Systems
Electronic management systems are computer programs that aid in the instructional process. Programs in this category include decision support aids, and tools to support the conduct and administration of instruction.

Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS)

An integrated electronic environment available to, and easily accessible by, each user. Permits performance with minimal support and intervention by others. Its structure provides immediate individualized access to a full range of information, software, guidance, advice and assistance, data, images, tools, and assessment and monitoring systems. Electronic Performance Support System may also be a type of job performance aid.

electronic publication
A document prepared in a digital form, on a suitable medium, for electronic-window display to an end user. Two examples of electronic publications are electronic guides and Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs).

electronic testing
A general term encompassing all methods for applying computers in the assessment of human attributes, knowledge, and skills. Sophisticated forms of computer-based testing adapt the sequence, content, number, or difficulty of test items to the responses of the person being tested. As the individual is being tested, the computer presents test items in response to the individual's actions. The electronic testing method uses branching to select test items, based on the answers given while the test is being administered.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)
A language designed for the web that allows creation of customized logos. It is a subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language. It supports links that point to multiple documents; distribution of processing to local computers; exchange of database information, and other more powerful tools than HTML can support.

file transfer protocol
A standard for moving files from one computer to another. Predominant use is on the Internet, when uploading files to a server, or downloading files to a computer.

graphics
Visual representations such as drawings, patterns, graphs, and diagrams.

hypertext
Text that can be linked to other text by clicking with a mouse at designated points.

HyperText Markup Language
The coding system used to format and structure WWW hypertext documents. HyperText Markup Language defines the identifiers and usage of tags for indicating paragraphs, headings, links, highlighting, lists, etc. It is the standard language for Internet communication.

Instructional Media Design Package (IMDP)
An outline of the critical elements required to design CBI modules, lessons, or tests. It details the appearance, flow, and content of the IMI, and includes the instructional strategies used to present the learning objectives. This package includes a prototype lesson delivered with the IMDP.

interactive courseware (ICW)
Computer controlled courseware that relies on trainee input to determine the pace, sequence, and content of training delivery, using more than one type medium to convey the content of instruction. Interactive courseware can link a combination of media to include, but not limited to, programmed instruction, videotapes, slides, film, text, graphics, digital audio, animation, and up to full-motion video, to enhance the learning process.

Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM)
A technical manual delivered electronically that possesses the following characteristics: presented either on a desktop or a portable device; elements of data are so interrelated that a user's access to the information is achievable by a variety of paths; and provides the users with procedural guidance, navigational directions, and other required technical information.

Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI)
A term applied to a group of predominantly interactive, electronically delivered training and training support products, to include instructional software, and software management tools used in support of instructional programs.

Internet enabled
Stand-alone applications not dependent on other Internet software created for other purposes. The training application would handle all of its own communication with the server.

Internet Protocol (IP) address
A unique set of numbers used to represent every single computer in a Network. All the computers on the Internet have a unique IP address. The format of the IP address is 4 numbers separated by dots; e.g., 155.217.33.120.

Java
Java is a platform-independent current programming language designed for writing programs that can be downloaded to a computer through the Internet. Using small programs (Java applets) makes the program interactive (i.e., allows scoring of questions and student interactions). It is used in conjunction with the HTML coded information.

Java script
A scripting language embedded into the HTML document for developing Internet/Intranet applications. Java and Java Script are not the same thing. The difference is that Java was built as a general-purpose language, while Java Script is intended to provide a quicker and simpler language for enhancing web pages and servers.

job aids (electronic)
A checklist, procedural guide, decision table, worksheet, algorithm, or other aid delivered via electronic means that job incumbents use to aid in task performance.

multimedia
The use of more than one media, to achieve a specific purpose or objective. Multimedia refers to a technology combining text, still and animated images, video, audio, and other forms of computer data, which can be manipulated. It is used to convey information in a useful, educational, entertaining, realistic, or more easily understood manner. Multimedia is delivered on a multimedia workstation, or personal computer, via network, hard disc, floppy disc, or CD-ROM.

object

All visual screen elements such as buttons, text, graphics, and media players. All objects have properties, and may have program code. In object-oriented programming, the objects range from human beings (described by name, address, etc.) to buildings and floors (whose properties can be described and managed) down to the visual element on the computer desktop (such as buttons and scroll bars).

object-oriented programming
A programming concept where each program is a collection of individual objects that interact with each other. Each object has its own program code and data, thus the interface to objects is well defined, and allows the code implementing the methods to be changed, so long as the interface remains the same.

path
The list of directories and folders where files are stored, and the application searches for execution.

  • Relative path - A path relative to the working directory; i.e., subdirectories and folders under the directory the user is working in. Using relative file addressing, files that contain a hyperlink can be moved or copied, as long as the file structure underneath the working directory remains the same.
  • Absolute path - A path relative to the root directory. A hyperlink to a fixed file location is created, using absolute file addressing.

performance-based test
A test to determine if a student can perform the learning objective (the criterion) to the established standard without demonstrating actual performance.

plug-ins
Add-on software that extends web browsers to run nonstandard-based applications. These web browser add-ons are commonly referred to as plug-ins for the Netscape Navigator browser and the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser (i.e., Real Player for Streaming Media).

preprogrammed interactive object
Preprogrammed object(s) grouped together with preset appearance and built-in functionality, added to courseware, normally by just dragging and dropping. Many preprogrammed interactive objects have the ability to change their properties to further define appearance and behavior. Common uses of preprogrammed interactive objects are for questions, response checking and evaluation, navigation, and playing media.

script
The translation of the treatment (see below) into a narrative description of what the completed production will contain, including scenes, sequences, dialogue, narration, graphics, music displayed, camera angles, etc., required to develop the program.

simulation
Any representation or imitation of reality, to include environment, facilities, equipment, mechanical and maneuver operations, motion, role-playing, leadership, etc. It is the representation of salient features, operation, or environment of a system, subsystem, or scenario.

storyboard
A graphic description or depiction of key scenes, arranged sequentially. It describes the action and content of the production, and specifies graphics, text, visuals, video, audio, and special effects.

streaming media
With streaming, the media (audio, video, and animation) starts displaying the data before the entire file has been transmitted allowing quicker access to the instructions. Streaming technologies are becoming increasingly important with the growth of web-based training.

template
Screen design and layout, with ready-made backgrounds and screen formatting, which have incorporated standards and conventions with preprogrammed interactive objects, for navigation and student interaction.

treatment
A brief, succinct outline or narrative describing the proposed product, usually written by the scriptwriter. It contains the concept, purpose, and learning objectives of the product.

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
The address, or location, of a document or object on the WWW accessed by a link anchor on a web page. The URL is the standard way to specify the target of a hyperlink.

FOR THE COMMANDER:

OFFICIAL:                                                                                                        ANTHONY R. JONES
                                                                                                                           Lieutenant General, U.S. Army
                                                                                                                           Deputy Commanding General/
                                                                                                                               Chief of Staff

 


JOHN D. CAMPBELL
Acting Chief Information Officer