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 TRADOC Regulation 25-30

Chapter 7 (continued)
Section VI
Spelling, Usage, and Word Division

7-47. Introduction. As doctrine changes and equip-
ment becomes more sophisticated, so does terminology.
Publications written for a few specialists well versed in
trade jargon can use a flexible, highly technical
vocabulary, perhaps even unconventional syntax or
spelling. However, publications intended for large,
diverse audiences cannot assume that all readers will be
equally knowledgeable, motivated, and quick to learn.
Unusual terms, nonstandard usage, eccentric spellings,
and incorrect word divisions impede the flow of informa-
tion. To reach their audiences effectively, Armywide
doctrinal and training publications must include clear
terminology, normal spelling, and standard usage.

7-48. Spelling. correct and consistent spelling is basic
to quality doctrinal and training publications, It is essen-
tial to comprehension, readabiilty, and credibility.  If a
troublesome word is not listed here, use the preferred
dictionary spelling.  Always use the same spelling
throughout the publication.

    a. Preferred and correct spellings:

        advisor                  advise
        align                    aline
        appendixes               appendices
        enclose                  inclose
        endorse                  indorse
        entrench  rather than    intrench
        gauge                    gage
        go/no-go                 go-no-go; go, no-go
        inquire                  enquire
        judgment                 judgement
        reinforce                reenforce
        supersede                supercede
        toward                   towards
        usable                   useable

    b. Frequently misspelled words:

        accessible               occurred
        accommodation            receive
        audible                  rescission
        collocate                supersession
        consensus                suspectible

7-49. Usage. Be guided by dictionary labels that iden-
tify words as obsolete, dialectal, substandard, and slang.
To reach the widest audience, avoid regional or archaic
words, jargon, and verbiage that is either too pretentious
or too colloquial for its subject and audience. To select
words appropriate for their contexts, use your knowledge
of denotation and connotation and exercise judgment.

    a. Word choice.

       (1) Newly coined words, jargon borrowed from
other specialized fields, and parts of speech used
abnormally can interrupt the flow of information by
forcing readers to pause to consider the meaning. For
example, avoid using remote and weather vane as verbs.
Be cautious about transferring words such as proactive, a
term from the field of psychology, to Army training
where their intended meanings are wholly different:

    The exercise plan called for remoting the command post.

    The rocket may weather vane into the wind.

    People dark-adapt to varying degrees and at different

    Aircraft repairs are work-ordered to the supporting

    Rear-area protection requires proactive planning.

       (2) Ensure all words used can be found in a
standard dictionary or are clearly defined in a glossary.
Examples are deconfliction and attrit.

    b. Words used incorrectly. Avoid other words, such
as those below, that may cause confusion or be used in-

       acclimatization               palliative
       agoraphobia                   playability
       muskeg                        remediate

7-50. Word division. Syllable breaks are not always
correct end-of-line breaks. Use the dictionary to deter-
mine syllables and apply the following guidelines for
dividing words at the ends of lines of type.

    a. Never divide one-syllable words: helped, passed,

    b. Never divide the following suffixes:

        -ceous                    -gious
        -cial                     -sial
        -cion                     -sion
        -cious                    -tial
        -geous                    -tion
        -gion                     -tious

    c. Never divide words that begin with one-letter
syllables at the first syllable:

        amend- ment                a- mendment
        across           not       a- cross
        evic- tion                 e- viction
        against                    a- gainst

    d. Keep vowels that form a syllable on the first line:

        sepa-rate                      sep- arate
        leci- thin       not           lec- ithin
        evalua- tion                   evalu- ation

    e. Refer to the dictionary for the division of words
formed with -ible and -able. In many cases, these suffixes
may not be divided.

    f. Words beginning with two-letter syllables may be
divided after that syllable. Keep two-letter endings with
the word:

        co- ordinate                  coordinat- ed
        in- ternal       but not      internal- ly
        po- sition                    position- al

    g. Divide hyphenated compounds only at the

        court- martial     not     court-mar- tial
        self reliant               self-re- liant

    h. Avoid divisions that might confuse and distract
the reader when either part of the division could be

        wind- ing                     inter- rogate
        pray- er                      refer- ence

    i. Keep an individual's name on one line.

    j. To the extent possible, keep dates and numbers
and their related elements on the same line:

    The accounting procedures for field medical food
    service are in FM 8-505. The techniques for head
    counting are explained in paragraph 3-7a.

    k. Never interject a graphic between two parts of a
divided word.

    l. Never divide words between pages, and avoid
dividing them between columns.

    m. Never divide acronyms.

Part Four
Production and Processing

Chapter 8
Producing Camera-Ready Copy

8-1. Description. CRC is prepared error-free in the
exact format desired for the final publication. Unlike
CRMs, however, it does not require a comprehensive
dummy, nor is it normally mounted on boards. CRC may
be prepared on a typewriter or on a word processor that
outputs to an impact printer or a laser printer. The
original copy is forwarded to the printer to be
photographed, printed, assembled, and distributed.
Depending on equipment capability, graphics may be
produced electronically or in the traditional method. A
combination of mounted and unmounted CRC may be
submitted for the same publication.

8-2. Quality.

    a. The minimum ADTL standard for laser-printed
copy is a resolution of 300 DPI. However, not all copy
produced at 300 DPI is acceptable. To reproduce well,
type must be sharp and clean. The characters may not
be weak, broken, or filled in.

    b. Letter-quality dot matrix print is not acceptable.

    c. Dot patterns produced at 300 DPI are not accept-
able for screen tints. See paragraph 9-7a(l)(f) and figure
9-3 for the requirement to produce screen tints.

8-3. Size. Publications may be produced on 8 1/2- by 11-
inch paper to accommodate typewritten or laser-printed

8-4. Type. If equipment lacks the capability to vary
point size, 10- or 12-pitch type will be used for body copy.

8-5. Format.

    a. For typewritten copy and copy produced on
automated equipment lacking or limited in type and
page composition capabilities, format requirements fol-
low. Also see figure 8-1.

       (1) Margins will be 1 5/8 inches at the top and
7/8 inch at the bottom following the page number. The
page number will be separated from the body copy by at
least 3/8 of an inch. The left and right margins will be 1
inch each.

       (2) Text will be single-spaced and prepared in
either 6 1/2-inch-wide single columns or double columns
no wider than 3 1/8 inches each separated by a 1/4-inch
gutter. Columns need not be justified. Single-column
text will be prepared in 10-pitch typescript with indented
paragraphs. If text is in double-column format, 10- or
12-pitch typescript may be used.

       (3) The publication title on the cover will be
uppercase, centered on the page, and, if possible, bold.

       (4) The publication title on the title page will
be uppercase, centered at the top of the page, and, if
possible, bold.

       (5) The part number and title, if used, will be
the same as (4) above.

       (6) The chapter number will be centered with
an uppercased C and, if possible, bold.

       (7) The chapter title will be centered on the line
directly below the chapter number. It will be initial
capped and, if possible, bold.

       (8) The section number and title, if used, will
be centered, initial capped, and, if possible, bold.

       (9) Main paragraph titles will be uppercased,
flush left, and preferably bold. If bold is not possible,
underline main paragraph titles.

      (10) First subparagraph titles will be initial
capped, underlined, flush left, and, if possible, bold. If
bold is not possible, uppercase first subparagraph titles.

      (11) Second subparagraph titles will be initial
capped, flush left, and, if possible, bold.

      (12) Only the first letter of the first word of
third subparagraph titles will be uppercase. Titles
will run into the text and, if possible, they will be bold.
If bold is not possible, underline third subparagraph

      (13) Running heads--required in loose-leaf
publications-will be uppercase and lowercase at the
top of page, flush left on left-hand pages, flush right on
right-hand pages.

      (14) Page numbers will be centered at the
bottom of the page.

      (15) Only the first letter of the first word of
graphic captions will be uppercase. They will be
centered under the figure and, if possible, they will be bold.

      (16) Only the first letter of the first word of
table captions will be uppercase. They will be
centered over the table and, if possible, they will be bold.

      (17) Text in graphics will be initial capped.

    b. For copy produced on automated equipment
having type variations and/or page composition
capabilities, format requirements follow. Format will
adhere faithfully to the organization of the final
approved draft.

      (1) Page layouts will conform to one of the
basic page grids shown in DA Pam 25-36, appendix A.
Publications produced in 8 1/2-by 11-inch size will use
one of the grids specified in DA Pam 25-36 for a 10 7/8-
by 8 3/8-inch size.

      (2) Type size, line length, and leading must
conform to the principles established in DA Pam 25-36.
Measurements expressed in picas can be converted to
inches by dividing the picas by 6.

           (a) Preferably use a serif typeface such as
Schoolbook, Century, or Times Roman. If your laser
printer cannot adequately produce thin serifs, use a
sans-serif typeface such as Univers or Helvetica. Keep
the size of body copy between 9 and 12 points.

           (b) Within charts, illustrations, and graphs,
use a sans-serif typeface such as Univers or Helvetica no
smaller than 8 points. If 9-point type is used for body
copy, 7-point type may be used for graphics.

           (c) Footnotes may appear as small as 6
points. However, if your equipment cannot produce a
clean, legible character at 6 points, a larger size, not to
exceed 8 points, must be used.

           (d) Use sans-serif type in reverses. Filled-in
characters are not acceptable.

8-6. Graphics. If graphics accompanying CRC are
produced in the traditional manner, a space will be left
in the text so that the printer can strip in the graphic
keyed to that space. If they are produced electronically,
the following guidelines apply:

    a. Line art scanned and printed out as final CRC
on a laser printer must contain lines that are crisp and

    b. Continuous tone photos and art must be
prepared according to instructions contained in chapter
9; prescreened art and photos may not be used.

8-7. Specific publication requirements. Consult
TRADOC Reg 310-2 for additional ARTEPP require-
ments. Consult TRADOC Reg 351-11 and TRADOC Reg
351-12 for additional STP requirements.

    a. Specifications.

       (1) ARTEPPs and STPs (except job books).

             (a) The basic format for the text is single-
spaced and either single column (7 inches wide) or double
column (typed lines no wider than 3 1/4 inches)
separated by a 3/8-inch gutter. The columns need not be

             (b) For body copy, type shall be no smaller
than 12 pitch (elite). The maximum image area per page
will be 7 1/16 by 9 3/8 inches, exclusive of page numbers.
For minimum margin requirements, see figure 8-1.

             (c) For illustrations, charts, graphs, and
tables, the type may be reduced to, but may not be
smaller than, 8 points (80 percent of the elite size).

       (2) Job books.

             (a) Job books will be prepared normal size
and marked for reduction to 3 by 5 inches (see fig 8-2).
Copy will normally be typed using a gothic (sans-serif)

             (b) Copy will be prepared using 10-pitch type
on pages with trim sizes measuring 6 by 10 inches and
marked Reduce to 50 percent. Minimum margins before
reduction will be 3/4 inch on the sides of all pages; 3/4
inch at the top and 1 1/8 inches at the bottom for even-
numbered pages; 3/4 inch at the bottom and 1 l/8 inches
at the top for odd-numbered pages.

             (c) Copy will be prepared using 12-pitch type
on pages with trim sizes measuring 5 by 8 5/16 inches
and marked Reduce to 60 percent. Minimum margins
before reduction will be 5/8 inch on the sides for all
pages; 5/8 inch at the top and 15/16 inch at the bottom
for even-numbered pages; 5/8 inch at the bottom and
15/16 inch at the top for odd-numbered pages.

    b. Materials. Submit ARTEPPs and STPs on-

       (1) Lightweight bristol board or bond paper with
trim lines at all four corners (see fig 8-3). Pages without
paste-ups of any kind will not require protective covers.
Pages with paste-ups will need a protective tissue overlay
but not a kraft paper cover.

       (2) Bond paper trimmed to the exact size. Paper
will not vary more than plus or minus 1/32 inch from the
trim size. The text must be typed on the sheet in the
exact position that it is to appear on the printed page.
A protective tissue is required on pages containing
paste-ups but not a kraft paper cover (see fig 8-4).

    c. Identification. CRC prepared on lightweight
bristol board or bond paper will not have identifying
markings (see para 9-7b(6)) on the tissue overlays.

8-8. Final preparation.

    a. Mounted. CRC that requires a transparent over-
lay of any sort, such as to meet the requirements for
halftones and screen tints, will be mounted and flapped
with both a tissue overlay and kraft paper cover as
shown in figure 9-3.

    b. Unmounted. CRC not requiring an overlay may
be submitted without being mounted. Submit only clean
original copies with trim marks in all four corners or
trimmed to the exact size.

       (1) Pages with paste-ups must have a protective
tissue overlay but are not required to have a kraft paper

       (2) Pages without paste-ups of any kind will not
require the protective tissue overlay or the kraft paper

    c. Mixed. A combination of mounted and un-
mounted CRC may be submitted for the same

8-9. SME and editorial review. You and the editor
will review page proofs, as well as the completed CRC.
The editor will review them against the requirements in
chapter 6 and TRADOC Form 152-R at the back of this

Chapter 9
Producing Camera-Ready Mechanicals

Section I
The Comprehensive Dummy

9-1. Description. The comprehensive dummy is a page-
by-page prototype of the final publication. It is prepared
by the VIS as the first stage in the preparation of CRMs.
It contains positioned proofs or copies of the actual
typeset copy and rough graphics.

9-2. Quality. Because the comprehensive dummy con-
trols the final product, it must be carefully designed and
prepared. (DA Pam 25-36 contains detailed guidance on
publication design.) The faces, sizes, and positions of
type must signal the organization clearly, whether the
paragraphs are numbered or unnumbered. Each level of
paragraph heading must be distinctive, and the selected
display type must be consistent at each level throughout
the publication. The VIS must-

    a. Be alert for errors introduced at the typeset stage.

    b. Not omit copy or reverse its sequence.

    c. Number the pages properly and ensure that page
references, such as those in the table of contents, are cor-

    d. Match the terms and labels in the graphics to
those in the text.

9-3. Specifications.

    a. Cover. The VIS will design a cover in the ap-
propriate size and binding and according to the
requirements in chapter 6, See figures 9-1 and 9-2.

    b. Color. The publication may contain one color in
addition to black, so long as it is functional (also see
para 3-le(3)). The VIS will determine whether or not a
second color is functional.

    c. Layout. The VIS will devise a design format that
can be adapted to the first page of each chapter and to
all other components that require repetitious treatment.
The outline supplied by the editor will assist the VIS in
formatting the book consistent with the organization of
the text.

    d. Typography. The VIS will specify typefaces and
sizes for the body copy and any text within graphics, en-
suring that the organization in the final approved draft
is followed faithfully. When paragraph numbers are not
used, the VIS will ensure that the size and style of type
and the placement of headings clearly indicate an or-
ganizational pattern. When adjustments to text or
organization are desired to accommodate design, the
VIS will coordinate with the editor and, if necessary,
with you.

    e. Graphics.

       (1) Graphics clarify the subject matter, increase
reader interest, and improve retention. Graphics can
also reduce the written text. However, the VIS must
coordinate with the editor when considering replacing or
incorporating part of the text into a graphic. A joint
decision will ensure that organization and coherence
remain intact. Without coordination, the VIS may
disrupt the organization, for example, the requirement
to have at least two paragraphs at any organizational
level. This can happen if the VIS encloses one of only
two main or subordinate paragraphs in a box. The VIS
and the editor must collaborate to accommodate both
their needs.

             (a) Types. Graphics will fit the specific pur-
pose of the text and the users' needs. Line drawings are
an effective way to present complicated charts, diagrams,
graphs, and exploded perspective views. Line reproduc-
tion can offer not only the highest degree of fidelity in
printing but the greatest economy. Retouched
photographs, wash drawings, and airbrush drawings pro-
vide the most realism.

             (b) Sizes. Graphics will be large enough to
present the subject matter clearly. Because of the cost of
printing them, foldouts will be reserved for use when no
other option is feasible.

             (c) Placement. In the rare instances when a
graphic cannot appear where introduced or on a facing
page, the VIS will add its page number in the introduc-
tory text.

             (d) Captions. All graphics must have cap-
tions at the top, bottom, or sides. They may or may not
include numbers. Placement of numbers and captions
will be consistent throughout the publication. The editor
will review them for editorial accuracy and consistency.

       (2) Graphics should be drawn after the
comprehensive dummy page is laid out, not before.
Drawing graphics to fit the allocated space is much
easier than fitting type around illustrations that have
already been drawn. Illustrations from other
publications may have to be modified or completely

9-4. SME and editorial review. You and the editor
will review the comprehensive dummy before the CRMs
are begun (see chap 5). The editor will review the com-
prehensive dummy against TRADOC Form 152-R at the
back of this regulation.

Section II
Camera-Ready Mechanicals

9-5. Description. Simple CRMs consist of a paste-up
which combines the type and art of a page in proper posi-
tion and form so that only one photographic shot has to
be taken for each color. More sophisticated CRMs
involve overlays for color or tint that must register with
the base art. The CRMs can be completely pasted up and
can contain correctly spaced areas reserved for
photographs and wash drawings furnished to the printer
separately. Composition (text) is usually typeset, but it
may also be typewritten or computer-printed. In any
case, it must be a first or original copy rather than a
carbon or duplicated copy. DA Pam 25-36 contains addi-
tional guidance on producing CRMs. See figures 9-3 and

9-6. Production process. The VIS supervises graphic
and CRM production. The VIS turns the original or the
revised comprehensive dummy and all required changes
over to the illustrators who prepare the CRMs. The
illustrators will follow the comprehensive dummy exact-
ly. They replace with final art the rough sketches or
blank areas used for locating and sizing graphics. If the
information and graphics are complicated, producing the
CRMs can be an involved and time-consuming process.

9-7. Production requirements.

    a. Field manuals and training circulars.

       (1) Materials.

             (a) All typesetting will be done on resin-
coated paper. So-called stabilized paper is not acceptable
because type set on it fades very quickly.

             (b) Individual illustrations and camera-
ready pages containing paste-up elements or overlays
will be mounted on white mounting board. The board
will be of sufficient weight to prevent buckling or curling
after mounting. Mounting will be done so that artwork
is not wrinkled, blistered, or stained by bleeding
adhesive. The mounting boards will be uniform in size,
when practical, to allow convenient handling and
economical shipping and storage. A l-inch minimum
margin on all four sides of the image area of the artwork
is required. A 2-inch margin is preferred.

             (c) Mounted illustrations or camera-ready
pages containing paste-up elements, overlays, or other
fragile areas will have a nonoil tissue overlay and a
heavy paper protective flap. The paper flap will be
trimmed flush with both sides and the bottom of the
mounting board. It will be folded over the top edge of the
mounting board with the folded portion attached secure-
ly to the back side of the board.

             (d) Marks for changes or corrections indi-
cated on the tissue overlay will be removed or a new
tissue overlay applied prior to submission for printing.

             (e) Illustrators will construct overlays of
transparent material such as acetate, Mylar, or
polyethylene not less than .003 inch thick (preferably
.005). Stable base material specially manufactured for
overlay application, such as Amberlith and Rubylith, is
preferred. Overlays of tissue or other paper stock are
not acceptable.

             (f) Wherever tints of any color, including
black, are desired in line art, the area will be indicated
on an overlay of Amberlith or Rubylith or with Para-
Paque or similar masking film. Illustrators will prepare
the area in register with base art so the printer can strip
in a mechanical screen.

             (g) In FMs and TCs, artificial shading aids,
such as Zip-a-tone and Craftint, may be used to show
volume or form in illustrations but not for tint blocks
(solid shaded areas). Shading aids requiring a liquid
developer are never acceptable. In ADTL other than FMs
and TCs, shading aids may be used for tint blocks except
when the block contains typeset copy.

             (h) If Zip-a-tone is used, illustrators will en-
sure that the screen size will not be finer than 100-line
after final reduction. They will burnish it firmly but
carefully to avoid tonal variations and blurred dots and

       (2) Binding. Bound publications will be
contained in a wraparound cover. Those that have 80
pages or fewer will be saddle-stitched. Those that have
more than 80 pages will be perfect-bound (adhesive-
bound). Loose-leaf format may be used if a publication
will change frequently or if loose-leaf better serves user

       (3) Format. The trim size of the publication
usually determines the format for body copy. DA
Pam 25-36 contains specifications for a variety of
formats approved for use in ADTL.

             (a) The preferred format for most publica-
tions that are 8 3/8 by 10 7/8 inches is 10- to 12-point
type in two justified columns, each 19 to 20 1/2 picas
wide, depending on type size. The columns are separated
by a 2-pica space, for a total overall width of 40 to 43

             (b) Safety margins must conform with those
specified in a(l)(b) above. However, column widths
should observe minimum and maximum ideal line
lengths for the type sizes used.

             (c) Whenever possible, the total pages of
bound and loose-leaf publications will be planned to
divide evenly by four.

             (d) Graphics positioned sideways (broadside)
will be placed so that the head is toward the gutter on
right-hand pages and the foot is toward the gutter on
left-hand pages.

       (4) Typography. Typeset copy will be prepared
for same size (100 percent) reproduction and pasted on
mechanicals in camera-ready condition.

             (a) The preferred typeface for body copy is a
serif style such as Schoolbook, Times Roman, Century, or
Cheltenham no larger than 12 points or smaller than 9

             (b) For illustrations, charts, and graphs, the
VIS may use a sans-serif style such as Univers, Techno,
Helvetica, or News Gothic no smaller than 8 points. If 9-
point type is used for body copy, 7-point type maybe used
for graphics. In illustrations where the user is not re-
quired to read the copy, the type may be smaller than 8

             (c) VISs will not use serif-style type with
thin line strokes in reverses.

             (d) Leading between lines must be type size,
plus 1 or 2 points for a column 19 to 20 1/2 picas wide.

             (e) To facilitate readability, leading will
always be proportionate to the length of the line and size
of the typeface.

             (f) Paragraph and chapter titles and other
display type will be sized and styled in keeping with the
design of the publication. They will be consistent
throughout the publication.

    (5) Bleeds. Art and design elements for bleed
pages will extend 1/8 inch past the trim lines on the top,
bottom, and outside edges of the page. Art or design
elements will not extend past the trim lines on the gutter

    (6) Base-art and type; overlays.

             (a) Where possible, illustrators will prepare
base art and type for black ink printing.

             (b) Illustrators will paste line art, reproduc-
tion photostats, and type in position on mechanicals in
camera-ready condition for same size (100 percent)
reproduction. Strip-ins are not acceptable. Reverses and
flops must be done by the preparing agency, not the

             (c) Art and type to be printed in a second
color ink will be prepared on overlays. Screen tints of
each color will be on overlays. Illustrators will mark the
percent of screen tint desired on the bottom of the over-
lay, directly below the bottom edge of the page. The
screen tint will be indicated in multiples of 10 ranging
from 10 percent to 90 percent. Solid colors will be
marked as 100 percent or solid. Illustrators will firmly
hinge one edge of each overlay sheet to the base art with
transparent tape. Masking tape is not acceptable. Tape
will be extended the full length of the hinged side (see
fig 9-4).

             (d) Base art and overlays will be in register,
with a minimum of two register marks on each page and
two on each overlay. Register marks may be placed in-
side or outside the page trim area, although inside is
preferable. Illustrators will not locate the register marks
closer than 1/4 inch to type or art inside the page area or
too far outside the page edge. In any case, marks will be
located as far from each other as possible on each page,
for example, in the upper left and lower right corners.

    (7) Continuous tone art and photos.

             (a) Illustrators will not use prescreened art
and photos, such as screened veloxes, photomechanical
transfer (PMT) prints, and preprinted copy, for line
reproduction or for rescreening as halftones.

             (b) Continuous tone art and photos for sil-
houette (outline) and square halftones will be mounted
on separate boards. They must have the proper reduc-
tion or enlargement instructions indicated as a percent-
not inches or picas. They must be protected in the same
manner as mechanicals. If callouts are required in the
halftone image, add another overlay with the callouts in
place and in register with the position print.

             (c) So that the printer will know exactly
where and how the silhouette halftones are to be
stripped in, represent them with position prints
(preferably continuous tone) reduced to size and pasted
in position. For position only will be written or stamped
in red or black ink across the position prints to ensure
that the printer does not mistake them for camera copy.
Masks will be prepared on overlays. They will be placed
over the position prints and in register with the base art.
They will be labeled, for example, Blackout Mask,
Page 10. See figure 9-5.

             (d) Square halftone art and photos do not re-
quire position prints. They must have blackout windows
in the exact size and location, mounted directly on the
base art or on a registered overlay. Illustrators will lo-
cate crop marks on the camera copy in proportion to the
blackout windows on the base art. If the blackout will be
closer than 1/4 inch to any type or art to be printed in
the same color, the blackout must be prepared on an
overlay. See figure 9-6.

    (8) Printing instructions and identification.

             (a) Using black or red ink, illustrators will
write as closely as possible but no closer than 1/8 inch to
the trim area to ensure that instructions, identification,
and border information appear on the film negatives
when the pages are photographed.

             (b) Trim lines will be placed in the four
corners of each page to define the trim area. Trim lines
should not touch or cross, nor should they be placed
closer than 1/8 inch to the trim area (see fig 9-4).

    (c) Base art and each overlay should be clear-
ly identified as to page number, color, and, where ap-
plicable, percentage of screen tint. The identification
will be located directly under the bottom edge of each
page (see fig 9-5). The color will be identified by name,
not Pantone Matching System (PMS) number. A color
swatch with the PMS number may be pasted to the front
of the protective flap on mechanicals for the first two
pages. Color names and numbers must match those indi-
cated on DA Form 260, for example, Page 24, 100%
Green or Page 20, 20% Green.

    (d) Illustrators will identify each mechanical
in the lower right corner of both the mechanical and its
protective cover by showing the publication number and
the page numbers, for example, FM 7-5, Pages 14 and 15
or FM 7-5, Inside Front Cover and Page 1 (see fig 9-4).

    (e) Illustrators will clearly indicate the per-
cent of reduction or enlargement on the mounts of con-
tinuous tone art and photos. In the lower right corners
of the mount and the outer cover, they will identify the
publication number and the number of the page to which
the art will be stripped. If more than one halftone ap-
pears on a page, they must key each to its position on the
mechanical, for example, Photo, Page 1(A).

    b. ARTEPPs and STPs (except job books).

       (1) Specifications. Specifications are basically
the same as for FMs and TCs (see para 8-7a for
preparation of CRC). Mechanicals will consist of either
single pages or two facing pages with a l-inch space
between the pages at the gutter edge (see fig 9-4).

       (2) Binding.

             (a) ARTEPPs will be bound in a wraparound
cover and drilled with three holes. If they have 80 pages
or fewer, they will be saddle-stitched. If they have more
than 80 pages, they will be perfect-bound.

             (b) Standard size STPs (8 3/8 x 10 7/8 inches)
will be drilled to enable use of a binder cover. Smaller
publications will not be drilled.

       (3) Color. Text pages will be printed in black ink
on white stock. Covers will be printed in black ink on
color stock as indicated below:
           Skill Level 1: white
             Skill Level 2: yellow
               Skill Level 3: green
                 Skill Level 4: salmon

             (a) STPs for all skill levels printed as one
book, with or without differentiated tasks, will use the
color for the highest skill level in the book.

             (b) TGs published separately will be printed
in black ink on white stock. Cover stock will also be

             (c) STPs that combine SMs and TGs use a
cover color for the highest skill level contained in the

       (4) Typeset copy.

             (a) For STPs, the copy will be prepared for
same size (100 percent) reproduction and pasted into
position on the mechanicals in camera-ready condition.

             (b) The basic formats are a single justified
column not to exceed 92 picas wide or two justified
columns, each 19 to 20 1/2 picas wide. The columns are
separated by a 2-pica space, for an overall width of 40 to
43 picas. The maximum image area of type per page will
be 43 by 56 picas, exclusive of page numbers.

             (c) For body copy, use a serif style such as
Schoolbook, Cheltenham, or Times Roman no larger
than 12 points or smaller than 9 points.

             (d) For illustrations, charts, and graphs, use
a sans-serif style such as Univers, Helvetica, or Megaron
no smaller than 8 points.

             (e) Leading between lines must be type size
plus 2 points for a column 32 picas wide or type size plus
1 or 2 points for a column 19 to 20 1/2 picas wide.

       (5) Graphics.

             (a) Base art and type; overlays. Prepare
overlays for art and type to be printed as screen tints.

             (b) Continuous tone art and photos. In this
category of publications, a screened print of a photo may
be used. Paste it into position on the mechanical as line
art. It cannot be finer than 100-line, and the mechanical
must be prepared for 100 percent reproduction.
Illustrators will avoid using flat or poor quality photos.
They will not use preprinted halftones.

       (6) Printing instructions and identification.
Illustrators will identify each mechanical in the lower
right corners of both the mechanical and its protective
cover by showing the publication number and, directly
below it, the page number or numbers. Identifying
markings will not be placed on mechanicals trimmed to
exact reproduction size.

    c. Job books.

       (1) Dimensions.

             (a) The final trim size for job books is 3 by 5

             (b) The maximum image area of each page
will be 2 1/4 by 4 inches.

       (2) Binding. Job books will be printed head to
foot and saddle stitched on the short dimension. Total
pages must be in multiples of four. They must be within
1/32 inch of the trim size. They will be bound at the top
rather than along the left side and drilled for use in a
three-ring, top-opening binder. The holes will be 1/4 inch
in diameter, located 3/8 inch from the fold to the center
of the hole and 3/4 inch from the center of each hole to
the center of the next. See figure 8-2.

       (3) Color. Print will be black on white stock.

       (4) Body copy. The body copy will be typeset or
type-written. See chapter 8 for typewritten
specifications. Type for typeset copy will be prepared for
same size (100 percent) reproduction and pasted in
position on the mechanicals in camera-ready condition.
A sans-serif style such as Univers, Helvetica, News
Gothic, or Spartan will be used. It must be no smaller
than 6 points.

9-8. Quality. To photograph well, the type and art on
the CRMs must be sharp and clean, and the background
must be pure white. This requirement also applies to
printouts from automatic data-processing and word-
processing equipment. Weak or broken characters must 
be corrected. Oversize pages must be reduced or
trimmed to fit the printed image area. However, pages
must not be reduced so much that the type in graphics is
smaller than 7 points and the type in body copy is
smaller than 9 points. The type size of body copy must
be the same throughout the publication.

9-9. SME and editorial review.

    a. You may exercise the option of reviewing the

    b. The editor will review CRMs to ensure that-

       (1) All agreed-upon changes resulting from
review of the comprehensive dummy have been made. If
the comprehensive dummy is omitted, the editor will
review the CRMs using TRADOC Form 152-R.

       (2) Copy is intact and placement follows the
sequence of the final approved draft/comprehensive

       (3) Any typeset copy appearing for the first time,
such as on the cover, in the final graphics, and in the
index, is accurate.

       (4) A page number has been added to the text
introducing any graphic that appears more than one
page away from its introduction.

       (5) Page numbers in the TOC and page refer-
ences in the text are correct.

    c. Once the CRMs have been completed and
reviewed for quality control, they are forwarded to
USATSC for print and distribution.

Chapter 10
Processing for Print and Initial Distribution

10-1. General. USATSC will no longer accept or
process DA Forms 260 prior to receiving the CRC or
CRMs. However, USATSC will-

    a. Critique copies of the completed DA Form 260
and the publication's cover, its title page, and its authen-
tication page if submitted in advance of the final

    b. Continue to place the publication date on all pub-

    c. Reset form numbers in those publications includ-
ing new or revised forms that are changed at USAPPC.

10-2. Submission package.

    a. DA Form 260. The DA Form 260 initiates the
print cycle. The preparing agency completes and sub-
mits it in duplicate to Commander, USATSC, ATTN:
ATIC-ETL-M, Fort Eustis, VA 23604-5168. Appendix G
contains DA Forms 260 showing instructions for each
type of publication. Consult your publications branch to
determine who is responsible for preparing the DA Form
260 and submitting the publication for printing. The DA
Form 260 must-

       (1) Specify the trim size of the largest foldout if
the publication contains foldouts.

       (2) Include print specifications so that print costs
may be estimated.

       (3) Indicate the types of paper and ink color for
both text and cover.

       (4) Include the distribution restriction statement
and destruction notice, if applicable, selected from the
available options listed in AR 25-30.

       (5) Include for FMs, TCs, and ARTEPPs the
distribution information from the DA 12-series forms.
DA Pam 25-30 indicates the form number, publication
number, publication title, and quantity requirement
block number.

       (6) Identify in part III the external approval

    b. CRC/CRMs. Completed CRC or CRMs will accom-
pany the DA Form 260.

    c. Comprehensive, or printer's, dummy. Two copies
of the comprehensive, or printer's, dummy will be

    d. RGL. The RGL of the target audience will be
provided. Five-and-one-quarter-inch diskettes of the
final approved draft in ASCII format may also be
included for RGL verification.

    e. Copyright releases. When applicable, copies of
the copyright releases will accompany the DA Form 260.

    f. DA Form 1167. If the publication prescribes a
new or revised DA form, a completed DA Form 1167,
signed by the FMO, will accompany DA Form 260 (see
AR 25-30). When the print requirements are unusual,
print specifications for stocked DA forms maybe entered
into paragraph 32 of DA Form 1167. A comprehensive
dummy or CRC and two copies of each new, revised, or
mended form must also be included.

    g. First-year instructional requirements. To ensure
that USATSC procures sufficient copies, preparing agen-
cies must include all its first-year instructional
requirements, as well as those for other TRADOC

       (1) The number of copies and complete mailing
address with building numbers and agencies'
Baltimore publication account numbers must be
specified. If block 8 cannot accommodate a complete
listing of addressees, type the required distribution on
bond paper using the format in figure 10-1. These
requirements will be shipped directly from printer to


QTY      ADDRESS            QTY       ADDRESS

500      Commandant,        800       Commandant,
         USAOMMCS                     AHS, USA
         ATTN: ATSK-ALT               ATTN:
         (Bldg 3471)                  HSHA-TLD
         Redstone Arsenal             (Bldg 610)
         AL 36205-6240                Fort Sam 
         Acct #M0137                  Houston, TX
                                      Acct# J0057

5        Commander,         2,000     Commandant,
         USATSC                       USAFAS
         ATTN:                        ATTN:
         ATIC-ETL-M                   ATSF-SL-R
         (Bldg 1557)                  (Bldg 3034)
         Fort Eustis, VA              Fort Sill, OK
         23604-5168                   73503-5600
         Acct #E1293                  Acct #R0532

 Figure 10-1. Suggested format for directing
              printer distribution.

       (2) Information in TRADOC Pam 350-1 can help
in determining MOS training requirements at service
schools and US Army training centers.

    h. Requirements from other services or agencies.
Other services or agencies that use Army publications
may make their needs known to the preparing agencies.
When they do, the DA Form 260 must identify these
requirements: the publication number (see para 5-lb(5))
that the service or agency desires to appear on the publi-
cation, the quantity of copies needed, the fund citation,
the shipping instructions, and the POC.

10-3. Credit. Submission packages containing errors in
the DA Form 260, the publication cover, the title page,
the authentication page, or the RGL will be returned.
The preparing agency will not receive credit for a
deliverable until the package is correct and complete.

10-4. Processing sequence. The sequence below is for
publications prepared as camera-ready.

    a. If print money is available when the total com-
pleted package arrives, USATSC will prepare and submit
a red DA Form 260 to HQDA providing an information
copy to the preparing agency. USATSC will put the reim-
bursable order number on the DA Form 260. If print
money is not available, USATSC will hold the red DA
Form 260 until it is.

    b. About 4 weeks are required for HQDA to process
the red DA Form 260. Processing involves such work as
indexing the title, recording the supersession or rescis-
sion notice, computing the distribution requirement for
the total press run, and obligating print money. The last
step is to forward an obligated print order, or print requi-
sition, and shipping instructions to USATSC.

    c. Upon receipt of the print order from DA,
USATSC will forward the CRC or CRMs and printer's
dummy, print requisition, and shipping instructions to a
GPO regional printing procurement office for contract

10-5. Initial distribution.

    a. When DA prints new publications, revisions, or
numbered changes, copies go to units either through the
pinpoint (DA 12-series forms) or a special push system.
This automatic one-time issue is called initial distribu-
tion (ID).

    b. TOE and TDA units throughout the Army must
have established an account with the US Army Publica-
tions Distribution Center (USAPDC) to receive ID via
the pinpoint system and to receive copies under the
resupply system. DA Pam 310-10 contains details.

    c. Preparing agencies must identify their own
requirements to USAPDC by completing the proper DA
12-series form.

       (1) Current copies of some DA 12-series forms
now appear in DA Pam 25-33. Electronic E forms have
superseded DA Forms 12-11A, 12-11C, and 12-12A. DA
Pam 25-30 (microfiche) provides distribution informa-
tion: DA form number, publication number, title, and
quantity requirement block number. DA Form 12-99
(located on the last page of DA Pam 25-33) must be filled
in to cover subscription requirement at Baltimore pre-
viously identified on DA Forms 12-4 through 12-12.

       (2) Preparing agencies must-

             (a) Identify FMs and TCs, including those
that are classified, on DA Form 12-11E.

             (b) Identify SM, TG, and JB STPs on DA
Form 12-11E by MOS and skill level description.

             (c) Identify MQS STPs on DA Form 12-11E
by subject, branch, and rank or MQS level 1, 2, 3.

             (d) Identify ARTEPPs on DA Form 12-12E
by publication number.

             (e) Identify omissions or errors on pertinent
DA 12-series forms and report them to USATSC at least
6 months before submitting a print request.

Appendix A


AR 25-9
Army Data Management and Standards Program

AR 25-30
The Army Integrated Publishing and Printing Program

AR 34-1
US Army Participation in Internal Military
Rationalization, Standardization and Interoperability
(RSI) Programs

AR 335-15
Management Information Control System

AR 340-17
Release of Information and Records from Army Files

AR 340-21
The Army Privacy Program

AR 380-5
Department of the Army Information Security Program

AR 611-101
Personnel Selection and Classification, Commissioned
Officer Classification System

AR 611-112
Personnel Selection and Classification, Manual of
Warrant Officer Military Occupational Specialties

AR 611-201
Enlisted Career Management Fields and Military
Occupational Specialties

DA Pam 25-30
Consolidated Index of Army Publications and Blank

DA Pam 25-33
The Standard Army Publications System (STARPUBS):
Revision of the DA 12-Series Forms, Usages, and

DA Pam 25-36
Design and Production of Instructional Publications

DA Pam 310-10
The Standard Army Publications System (STARPUBS):
Users Guide

DA Pam 310-15
Forms Management and Standardization

DOD 5200.1-PH
A Guide to Marking Classified Documents

FPM Reg 101-11.2
Records and Information Management Handbook:
Forms Analysis and Design

JCS Pub 1-01
Joint Doctrine and Joint Tactics, Techniques, and
Procedures Development Program

TRADOC Pam 25-30
Index of TRADOC Supplements to Army Regulations,
and TRADOC Regulations, Pamphlets, and Circulars

TRADOC Pam 310-3
TRADOC Armywide Doctrinal and Training Literature

TRADOC Pam 350-1
Fiscal Year 1989 Schedule of Classes, Officer and
Enlisted Courses, U.S. Army Service Schools and Army
Training Centers

TRADOC Reg 11-7
TRADOC Doctrinal and Training Literature Programs

TRADOC Reg 11-16
Development and Management of Operational Concepts

TRADOC Reg 310-2
Design, Development, Preparation, and Management of
ARTEP Documents (Mission Training Plans [MTPs]
and Drill Books)

TRADOC Reg 351-6
Support of Training in Units

TRADOC Reg 351-11
Soldier Training Publications (STP) Policy and

TRADOC Reg 351-12
Military Qualification Standards System Products,
Policy, and Procedures

TRADOC Reg 381-1
Threat Management

The Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Appendix B
Research Information
B-1. Indexes. DA Pam 25-30 lists FMs, STPs,
ARTEPPs, TOEs, ARs, DA pamphlets, TMs, and so
forth. DA Pam 310-35 lists ISAs. TRADOC Pam 25-30
lists applicable TRADOC reference. Indexes, such as
the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, Industrial
Arts Index, Air University Index, Education Index, The
Engineering Index, Public Affairs Information Service,
New York Times Index, and Facts on File, cover
periodicals, pamphlets, reports, articles, and other
publications on a wide variety of subjects. Libraries will
also have numerous bibliographies that may provide
further leads in the search for material.

B-2. Branch files. Check the files for suggestions and
comments from the field that may apply to publications
scheduled for change or revision. Files may also contain
information on new or related publications.

B-3. Applicable international agreements. Contact
the local RSI point of contact for information on
international agreements applicable to your publication.
A computerized data base at Wright-Patterson AFB,
shown as D-104, lists all the ISAs to which the U.S.
subscribes. Reference and quote agreements used in the
publication according to AR 34-1 and this regulation,
See chapter 6 for format requirements.

B-4. Equipment. Equipment modification is an
ongoing process. Visit courses of instruction, field
exercises, and unit operations involving equipment.
These visits will allow you to observe procedures, which
are constantly changing, for the installation and use of

B-5. Scientific and technological reports. The
Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) and the
National Technical Information Service (NTIS) maintain
such documents for DOD. DTIC is a component of the
DOD scientific and technical information program. It
contributes to the management and conduct of defense
research and development efforts by providing access to,
and transfer of, scientific and technical information for
government personnel, DOD contractors, and others.
DTIC material is indexed and accessed through one or
more of the DTIC data bases available at local defense
libraries. The Department of Commerce NTIS also
receives unclassified technical reports with unlimited
distribution and makes them available to the general
public. NTIS announces its report collection in the
Government Reports Announcements and Index

B-6. Historical documents. The U.S. Army Military
History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA, has copies of
FMs and ARs dating back to World War II, official
annual historical summaries dating back to 1960, and
official and unofficial unit histories. Selected listings on
various operational subjects are also available there.

B-7. Films, videotape, photographs. The Defense
Audiovisual Agency is the repository for films,
videotapes, and still photographs for all services. It is
responsible for producing and distributing all material
cleared for public release. This material is indexed and
accessed through the Defense Audiovisual Information
System (DAVIS) available through local training and
audiovisual support centers (TASCs).

Appendix C
Table Preparation*
(*From Folio, Summer 1984)

C-1. Purpose. "Simplify the text" is a standard dictum
for writers. Often the solution lies not in rewriting
complicated sentences, but in changing the presentation
of information from text to tables. Carefully planned
and properly presented, tables can simplify the
presentation of complicated material. Tables can
summarize and systematically arrange comparative data
in columns and rows for easy reference and rapid
comprehension. Tables can also reduce the complexity of
explanations by providing, in a compact format, many
examples to support and explain a concept.

C-2. Organization. A good table is an extension of the
text. It explains, summarizes, or amplifies textual
information. For example, you can illustrate a
discussion of the equipment for a command post in a
table that lists requirement and the ways to support

    a. To begin planning your table, you must clearly
define the topics to be presented and determine what
common information you want to present about each
topic. Then decide the order of topics and the order in
which to present the common information.

   b. List the topics in the left-hand column of the
table. This left-hand column is often called the stub, and
its heading is the stub name. Then identify the column
headings. The topics in the stub and column headings
define the structure of the table. Each row defines the
stub name and column headings for a table. Figure C-1
is a sample table showing the stub name and column

  STUB NAME          HEADING 1            HEADING 2

Threat Level        Description        Friendly Response

Level I          Agents, saboteurs,       Base defense
                   terrorists               forces

Level II         Diversionary opera-      Military police
                   tions and sabotage
                   by tactical units

Level III        Airborne, airmobile,     Combat forces
                   or amphibious forces
                   (battalion-size or

                Figure C-1. Sample table.

    c. A table presents the same type of information
about several topics. If it does not, you are just organiz-
ing text in a multicolumn format, not tabulating. For
example, a format with two columns headed Respon-
sibility and Action is not a table because it does not
correlate information.

C-3. Format. Tables can have ruled lines. The
headings can be typographically distinguished from the
body or not, and spacing between items can vary. Most
important, determine the best table format for the
specific document or set of documents, and handle tables
consistently throughout. Figure C-2 provides some
considerations for planning your table format.

Consideration            Option

Ruled lines           o  Vertical only
                      o  Horizontal only
                      o  Both horizontal and
                      o  Computer box only
                      o  None

Table caption         o  Above the table
                      o  Below the table
                      o  With the legend
                      o  Numbered as figures follow-
                      ing the rules established for
                      figures, either sequentially
                      within the chapter or within
                      the document
                      o  Numbered as tables, either
                      sequentially within the chap-
                      ter or within the document
                      o  No numbers

Column heading style  o  Special type
                      o  All uppercase
                      o  Uppercase initial letters

       Figure C-2. Table format considerations.

C-4. Content.

    a. Once you have identified the information for the
table and determined the format, you are ready to com-
plete the table.

       (1) Check the stub name. It should be a concise,
clear description of the topics in the table.

       (2) Check the column heading. Column head-
ings should be short but descriptive. Specify units of
measurement, where necessary, in the heading, or
enclose them in parentheses beneath the heading. Do
not show the measurement with each item under the

       (3) List the topics under the stub name.
Describe them in a similar fashion, using the same parts
of speech for each.

       (4) List table detail. The data that goes under
the column headings and to the right of the stub is the
body of the table. List the information you want to
present in each cell of the body.

       (5) Title the table. Each table should have a title
that tells concisely what the table represents.

       (6) The table may contain a legend describing its
contents or an explanation of how to use the table.

    b. To complete your table, edit and rewrite the con-
tents for consistency and clarity.

C-5. Placement.

    a. You can insert tables in the text, place them in a
column reserved for figures, or position them on a page
facing the text. Three general guidelines for table place-
ment appear below.

       (1) Each table should have a text reference so
that readers know when to give it attention. Refer to all
tables by their table or figure number and/or table name.
Avoid referring to tables by the location on the page
because the location could change with revisions to the
document's text, format, or layout. For example, do not
write See the table below. Even though the use of the
word below, technically means somewhere following the
reference, readers expect to find the table directly below
the reference.

       (2) Every table should appear as close as possible
to its reference in the text--on the same page or facing
page. Tables should not precede the textual reference.

       (3) Every table should fit within the page mar-
gins. If necessary, divide a wide table into two or more
separate tables or continue a long table onto the next
page. When a table continues onto another page, be
sure to repeat the headings and table name with the
word continued.

    b. If the publication contains many important
tables, consider including a list of tables following the
table of contents.

Appendix D
Reading Grade Levels

D-1. Readability. To be useful to their intended users,
publications must communicate clearly and quickly. In
short, they must be readable. Readability is measured by
RGL tests. Although RGL tests do not measure how
organization, appearance, and syntax affect comprehen-
sion, they do provide workable standards that help keep
writing readable.

D-2. RGL requirement. RGLs are mathematical
analyses expressed in years of education. For example,
an RGL of 10 equates to a tenth-grade education. The
maximum RGL for ADTL is 12.

    a. The preparing agency must identify the target
audience and its RGL and ensure that the RGL of the
publication does not exceed the RGL of the target
audience. Assistance in determining target audience
RGLs may be obtained from Headquarters TRADOC,
ATTN: ATPL-B, Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-5000.

    b. USATSC verifies the RGL of each publication
prior to printing. USATSC will reject and return to the
preparing agency any publication that exceeds the RGL
of its intended users.

D-3. RGL calculations. To measure RGLs, apply the
Kincaid Readability Formula to passages of the text. To
arrive at a fair measurement, take samples at regular
intervals throughout the entire publication. For
publications that are 30 to 300 pages long, sample once
every 10 pages of text. The minimum number of samples
required is 3, the maximum 30.

    a. To calculate RGLs correctly, follow the steps as
indicated below and as shown in figure D-1.

Step 1. Beginning with a complete sentence, count 150
words in a passage. If the 150th word is within a
sentence, continue counting to the terminal
punctuation. Count as a word any group of words or
numbers surrounded by white space. Do not count
chapter, section, or paragraph headings. Count words
connected by a hyphen or solidus as one word. Count
each acronym as one word. Count numbers, including
numbers connected by a solidus or hyphen, as one word.

       long-term               1 word
       soldier/trainer         1 word
       TRADOC                  1 word
       937,658                 1 word
       TM 9-1920-238-13P       2 words
       STP 11-35H-12-SM       2 words

Step 2. Count the number of sentences. Sentences are
independent clauses that end with a period, question
mark, or exclamation point. Count independent clauses
separated by a semicolon or colon as separate sentence.
Count as a separate sentence any sentence set off by
parentheses within a sentence. If laundry list items are
phrases or dependent clauses, count the lead-in with
each listed item as a separate sentence. (The total
number of sentences would equal the number of items.)
If the laundry list lead-in and the list items are
independent clauses, count the lead-in and each listed
item as separate sentences. (The total number of
sentences would equal the number of items plus the

Step 3. Count the number of syllables. Count acronyms
that are not pronounced as words as one syllable. Count
a string of numbers as one syllable unless it is broken by
hyphen, solidus, or parentheses. If the string is broken,
count each portion as a syllable. Within the portions
count numbers and letters as separate syllables.

       AIT                     1 syllable
       TRADOC                  2 syllables
       12,803                  1 syllable
       TM 9-1920-238-13P       6 syllables
       DA Form 2407-1          4 syllables
       3x6                     3 syllables
       3 x 6                   3 syllables

Step 4. Divide the number of words by the number of
sentences to find the average words per sentence.

Step 5. Multiply the average number of words per
sentence by .4.

Step 6. Divide the total number of syllables by the total
number of words to find the average number of syllables
per word.

Step 7. Multiply the average number of syllables by 12.

Step 8. Add the results of Steps 5 and 7; subtract 16.
The result is the RGL of that sample.

Step 1       Total words            155

Step 2       Total sentences          9

Step 3       Total syllables        263

Step 4       Average
             (words/sentences)     17.22

Step 5       step 4 x .4                 6.89

Step 6       Average
             (syllables/words)      1.70

Step 7       Step 6 X 12                20.40

Step 8       step 5 + step 7            27.29
                                    RGL 11.29

      Figure D-1. Sample RGL work sheet.

    b. Calculate the overall RGL for the entire publica-
tion by adding the sample RGLs and dividing by the
number of samples.

    c. Refer to chapter 4 for ways to lower reading grade

Appendix E
Sample Reference List

E-1. Guidelines. For readers, the references portion is
a useful collection of all the sources used, to include
documents users need and sources that provide
additional relevant information. The references list
should be complete. It should not, however, include
sources whose relevance is remote.

E-2. Contents. If necessary, the references may
contain subheadings. In such cases, use at least two of
the subheadings described below and illustrated in
figure E-1.

    a. Sources used.

       (1) Sources used are those from which the publica-
tion is compiled-sources one would expect in a
traditional bibliography. They are those quoted or
paraphrased and named in numbered footnotes or in
parenthetical notes. These sources may include published
books, articles, manuals. They may include military,
civilian, contractor, or government documents; printed
graphic training aids; command-level publications and
concept papers; and forms from which information
derives. In rare cases they may be unpublished reports
and staff research; printouts, fiches, microfilm; inter-
views; or speeches. They may be sources that the
publication has reproduced because the information is
not otherwise available to users. Examples of these are
unclassified portions of classified sources and data
excerpted from ISAs that the publication implements.

       (2) Do not include the following kinds of items as
sources used:

             (a) Sources that users need to perform their

             (b) Forms that the text prescribes or merely
explains how to fill out.

             (c) Supplemental readings.

             (d) Training devices.

    b. Documents needed. Documents needed are those
that users must have on hand to do their jobs-basic
documents such as supply catalogs from which a unit
supply specialist orders supplies and equipment. These
sources should be available through normal supply chan-
nels. If they are not, the citations must include
addressee from which they may be obtained. Items not
suitable for listing as sources used (see a above) may
appear as documents needed. Do not list ISAs, command-
level publications, or concept papers as documents

    c. Readings recommended. Readings recommended
are sources of additional relevant information-readings
that could help users increase their skills or broaden
their perspectives.

These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this

Joint and Multiservice Publications

FM 34-81. Weather Support for Army Tactical
    Operations. AFM 105-4.31 August 1984.
JCS Publication 1-02. DOD Dictionary of Military
    and Associated Terms. January 1986.
TRADOC Pamphlet 34-3. Joint Laser (J-Laser)
    Designation Procedures. TACP 50-25/LANTFLT
    TIP-1/MCDEC OH 62D/USREDCOM Pamphlet
    38-1/USA USAFEP 50-25/AACP 50-25/PACAFP
    50-25. 11 December 1985.

Army Publications

FM 100-2-3. The Soviet Army: Troops,
    Organization, and Equipment. July 1984.
TM 5-3825-221-34P. Direct Support and General
    Support Maintenance Repair Parts and Special
    Tools List for Distributor, Water, Tank Type;
    Truck Mounted, Gasoline Driven... 28 August 1984.
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-34. U.S. Army Operational
    Concept for Special Operations Forces. 26 July 1984.
TRADOC Pamphlet 525-42. Operational Concept
    for Long-Range Surveillance Units. 26 October 1984.
(S-NF) Air Threat Handbook (U). Fort Bliss, TX:
    US Army Air Defense Artillery School. June 1987.

Nonmilitary Publications

Kleist, Morgan F. The Implications of Glasnost for
    Strategic Planning. Heidelberg, FRG: Institute
    for Strategy Analysis. 1988.
Taylor, John W. R., ed. Jane's All the World's
    Aircraft. London: Jane's Publishing. 1988.
Williams, David D. All-Weather Flight Training.
    York, VA: Aerogood Publishing. 1985.


These documents must be available to the intended
users of this publication.

DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to
    Publications and Blank Forms. February 1974.
FM 3-5. NBC Decontamination. 24 January 1985.
TC 43-50. Reconnaissance and Surveillance
    Handbook. 7 January 1980.


These readings contain relevant supplemental

FM 100-5. Operations. May 1986.
(S)TC 24-5. Multiservice Communications
    Procedures for Have Quick Systems (U).
    December 1988.
Vernon, Michael H. "Encirclement Operations."
    Military Review. September 1986: 11-17.

        Figure E-1. Sample reference list.

Appendix F
Sample Format for Multiservice

Following are pages of various multiservice publications
prepared according to a format approved by all four

    a. Cover. The cover, figure F-1, shows the names of
the three participating services in protocol order, the
title, the Army's distribution restriction and warning
and destruction notices and the alphanumeric designa-

    b. Foreword. The foreword, figure F-2, is the second
component. It appears on the inside front cover or the
first right-hand page (see para 6-9b). Signature blocks
are entered in protocol order. Logos are optional.

    c. Tactical Air Forces authorizations. If the Air
Force participates, it may require an authorization page
for its Tactical Air Forces (see figure F-3). This page, if
included, also contains the Army's distribution restric-
tion and warning and destruction notices. It follows the
foreword and precedes the title page.

    d. Title page. The title page, figure F-4, shows the
alphanumeric designations and service commands, the
date, the title, as much of the table of contents as pos-
sible, the Army's distribution restriction and warning
and destruction notices if a Tactical Air Forces authoriza-
tion page is not used, and the supersession statement.

    e. Preface. The preface, figure F-5, follows the table
of contents.

    f. Executive summary. If required, an executive
summary, figure F-6, appears on a separate right-hand
page following the preface. It shows the title and
provides a brief abstract of the entire publication.

    g. Glossary, references, Army authentication. In
addition to a glossary and list of references, the Army
authentication page is a required component of this
approved format.

Appendix G
Instructions for Completing DA Forms 260